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Full text of "Tammany Legend (Tamanend): Historic Story of the "St. Tammany" Tradition in American Government and What Democracy Owes to Aboriginal American Ideals. Based on Original Native Sources Covering, Historically, 600 A.D. to the Present (1938) [Miscellaneous Works]"

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Idealized composite portrait by Fritz Bade from description 
of Tamanend III, William Perm's friend, and the legends of 
the Indians concerning the other two kings of same name. Por- 
traits of modern Lenape types used as models. Tamanend's 
portrait is typical of Lenape Manhood at time of last entry in 
the Red Score. 








Copyright, 1938, by Joseph White Norwood 


Thb Meador Press, Boston, Massachusetts 


My Wife 


Special acknowledgments are made to Col. 
Lucien Beckner, geologist and Indian author- 
ity, for generous cooperation in working out 
the chronology of the Red Score; William 
Grant Wilson for wise and friendly advice on 
publication matters; John Collier, Indian 
Commissioner for data on present location 
and condition of Indian tribes; Fritz Bade, 
for the idealized and composite portrait of 


Often in the youth of this Republic, American "shirt- 
sleeve diplomacy" astonished, amused and sometimes 
shocked European countries. Our simplicity that called 
a spade a spade and demanded that answers be Yes or 
No, was taken as evidence of our semi-barbarism. 

After we grew powerful and prosperous and some- 
what more urbane of manner, these same Europeans 
referred to our "dollar diplomacy" and deplored our 
lack of ideals. The World War not only failed to 
undeceive them but won for us the nickname of "Uncle 
Shylock," seemingly because the war was fought on our 
money and we merely suggested that some of it be paid 

Our participation in the war impressed our friends 
across the ocean not at all as an act inspired by those 
high ideals that caused our soldiers to announce 
"LaFayette We Are Here," and President Wilson to 
pen his many historic documents. On the contrary, 
our allies were irritated, especially after the event, by 
the lateness of our arrival on the battle field, and have 
been scolding us roundly ever since. 

All that America seems to have "won" in this riot 
of nations is the respect of its foes and itself, the envy, 
ingratitude and dislike of its allies, and the right to 
henceforth bestow its friendship and largess where it 

The Rest of the world neither knows nor cares to 
understand American ideals. 


There is something in our mental and spiritual life 
that really makes it impossible for them to do so. They 
never had this something in their lives. 

Those who have attempted to pattern Republics 
after the American plan have signally failed. 

When we furnished them blueprints for a League of 
Nations they found it impossible to build. 

Our apostleship of peace is just another silly idea of 
"those crazy Americans." 

The Monroe Doctrine and similar idealistic policies, 
when interpreted and adapted by others, result in 

Our refusal to engage in entangling foreign alliances 
is hailed as an exhibition of complete selfishness. 

What Is This Mysterious Kink in American 
Psychology That Other People Find Impossible 
to Understand? And Where Did We Get It? 

This book answers both these questions. 

To the first, the answer is, that the American ideals 
of human right to "life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness," spring chiefly from original American 
sources and were developed on American soil for untold 
centuries before Europeans arrived on this continent. 

In so far as they are colored by European ideals 
concerning human rights, Europeans comprehend them, 
and only to that extent. 

To the second question, the answer is that modern 
America received these ideals from Ancient America 
of the Stone Age. 

These ideals are therefore so distinctly native to the 
soil that they should be known as the first Americans 
knew them, by a name that completely symbolizes them. 

This name is Tamanend. 

There were three historical personages bearing this 


name. They were elected rulers, whose services to their 
nation in times of great stress won for them such uni- 
versal love and admiration that the peaceful policies 
they successfully pursued were symbolized by the name. 

Tamanend I had his seat at Wisawana where now 
the Yellow River of Iowa flows into the Mississippi 
River. He flourished in the tenth century. 

Tamanend II ruled from the banks of the Susque- 
hanna in Pennsylvania. 

Tamanend III was friend and confidant of William 
Penn, founder of the City of Brotherly Love. The 
great Quaker was perhaps the first white man to under- 
stand the native ideals of Tamanend and himself be- 
came a legendary figure among Indians all over the 

In the following pages we attempt to show the 
development of the Tamanend ideal from history and 
legend of the Indian himself. 

The historical portion includes the story of that 
singular Delaware record known as the Walam Olum 
or Red Score, over which students have puzzled for 
more than a century. As we interpret it by the aid of 
legend, it becomes the key to aboriginal American 
History in North America from the sixth to the seven- 
teenth century. 

Among the legends which explain details of the 
historical record, are those relating to a secret society 
into which white men have never been admitted, but 
which are of such importance to our story, that they 
must be taken into consideration. 

This secret society was the "Priests House," es- 
tablished among all Indian nations on this continent 
apparently, for untold centuries prior to the advent of 
the white man. From it sprang the ritual of the 


"Calumet" or so called Peace Pipe, to be bearer of 
which was high honor. 

After showing the development of the Tamanend 
ideal to the time the first European colonists settled on 
these shores, we shall follow its course through Colonial 
and American history until we find it so definitely in- 
corporated into the life of this nation, that as Americans 
we may better understand ourselves and be the prouder 
for it. 

And it may be possible, should we further develop 
this ideal, that other nations will also understand us 



I Captain White Eyes and the Spirit of 1776 15 

II Tamanend III and William Penn 25 

III Before Tamanend 42 

IV Tamanend at Wisawana 57 

V Opekasit at Fish River 64 

VI Tamanend II 76 

VII Mistakes of Man Who Made Mistakes . 84 

VIII The Coming of the Whites 91 

IX Religion and Laws of the Red Man 117 

X The Calumet and Wampum 136 

XI The Liberty Boys and St. Tammany .... 142 

XII The Walam Olum or Red Score 148 

Appendix Notes 198 




Captain White Eyes and the Spirit of 1776 

England and its American Colonies had come to the 
parting of the ways. The year was 1775. 

Koguethagechton, Chief Counsellor to Netawatwes, 
Grand Sachem of the Delawares pondered on the fast 
gathering war clouds now darkening the sky over the 
Americans. He knew many of them well and favorably. 

Were they not all children of the Great Spirit? Had 
not the Grand Sachem, Tamanend himself, called 
William Penn, founder of their big village, "My Elder 
Brother," in token of the unity of their spirits? Now 
these people of the 13-Fires were in rebellion against 
their King across the great sea, and all Algonkin 
peoples, including even the Delawares, were allied to 
that Great Father, the British King, by sacred treaties 
of peace over which the "calumet," the pipe of peace 
had been smoked. 

Strange how it all had happened. 
Long ago tidings had come from far southern lands 
of a strange white race that repaid hospitality with 
death and destruction. They fought with fire sticks, 
those iron men, and were deemed magicians and evil 

But other whites had come directly to the country of 



the Great League of the Lenni Lenape over which 
Koguethagechton's predecessors had ruled; they were 
different. These called themselves Frenchmen and they 
too had a Great Father across the big waters. Also 
they had wonderful magical tricks which they taught 
their Red Friends to use in the hunt and sometimes 
against their enemies. 

The French made alliance with the Great League of 
the Algonkin nations. It was a matter between Kings 
and Koguethagechton was counsellor to a King — though 
the fur traders and long hunters called him White Eyes. 
Those Frenchmen had been true to that alliance against 
the Iroquois and Sioux, just as the Algonkins fought 
against the English because they were enemies of the 

Then, other white men came, who called themselves 
Dutch. Eagerly seeking a strong alliance with whites 
who owned those wonderful guns, the Iroquois League 
made alliance with them. And after that came the 
Englishmen north and south. What Indian nation bore 
them enmity ? Not one. 

True, they could not be allies with either of Algonkin 
or Iroquois because they did not seem to like either the 
French or the Dutch. But they were welcomed and 
given seats in the land that the Great Spirit alone owned. 
They were taught and fed and assured of friendship, 
so long as they respected the laws of that land, which 
were given by the Great Spirit himself. 

Yet, it had been caused, that the English quarreled 
with the Dutch and conquered them so that in time the 
Iroquois, allies of the Dutch, became English allies. 
Then indeed no Algonkin could feel safe in their com- 
pany. Besides, wars arose between French and English 
over causes of little interest to the Great League. But 


Algonkins were true to their alliance with the French. 

So, the Englishmen built these 13-Fires, now so far 
removed from the fighting and quarrels in the west. 
The French they had driven back of the Alleghenies. 
There was still much good hunting land there and the 
League was able to defend it with French help or with- 
out it. The western division of the League could 
attend to that. 

But the English had not been satisfied with crowding 
from their fires all others than themselves. In the last 
great war they had conquered the French! They and 
their Iroquian allies. 

Now indeed the Algonkin peoples were in danger. 
Their great ally defeated, their ancient homelands in 
the Ohio Valley seized by the Iroquois. The manito of 
these Redcoats had been more powerful after all. 

And so, in time, the Great League accepted alliance 
with them because it needed at least a neutral position 
for the British King in the war to drive out the Iroquois. 
These whites now had no powerful white enemies to 
fight and little they seemed to care about the quarrels 
between their Indian allies. 

When the Algonkin League recaptured the Ohio 
Valley, the British did not even seem to notice it ! 

And now they were at loggerheads among themselves. 

With the 13-Fires in rebellion against their lawful 
King, what should the position of the Delaware nation 

Koguethagechton's first duty was to his own nation, 
which lived with these rebels. Should he advise the 
aged Netawatwes to assume the ancient titles to which 
his position as chieftain of the Delawares entitled him, 
Netawatwes must lead his people against the rebel 
whites with whom they were at peace. And should he 


do so, very probably his pretensions would be now 
laughed at in the west — so long had it been since any 
Grand Sachem from the East had interfered with the 
conduct of the west. 

Here was but a quarrel between the Great Father 
across the ocean with his children of the 13-Fires. Let 
them settle it. Why should the Indians be called upon 
to fight in that quarrel? 

It would be better to follow the path of wisdom long 
ago opened by Tamanend, and remain friends with all, 
than offer counsel to either side. 

Should the American rebels lose their fight against 
their lawful King. . . . 

Koguethagechton slowly removed the pipe from his 
mouth and his eyes narrowed. Otherwise he remained 
motionless. But now his thoughts raced like thunder 

Their lawful King — but these Americans did not 
like that King. 

Would their Grand Council depose him and choose 
another, as Red men would have done ? No one seemed 
to know. 

But this, Koguethagechton knew; all these young 
white hunters who so often visited him for counsel or 
went with him into the woods and down the streams 
were friends of Tamanend. Often he had told them of 
that great King and the more they heard the more they 
wanted to hear. 

The Grand Sachem smiled as he remembered some of 
the astonishing tales his white friends told of Tamanend 
to others who were not admitted to their secret circles — 
such tales of wonder working as the Delaware them- 
selves had never imagined. 

For many years Tamanend had been the pattern 


upon which the Colonial soldiers organized their home 
guard units. They explained that they admired 
this ancient sage and warrior of their Red Brothers 
because he had been the friend of all people, and not 
just the friend of officers. The white brother had his 
joke about this for he had almost a red heart sometimes. 

There had been a society of Tamanend — the soldiers 
pronounced it ''Tammany" — of loyal common soldiers 
and their minor chieftains. But of late the rebel Ameri- 
mans were talking of the ancient hero and holy one as 
their ''patron saint" and the "patron saint''' of the 
13-Fires, smiling grimly while they said it. 

Societies of St. Tammany met stealthily lest the 
Redcoats know their plans. 

To Koguethagechton, his white hunting companions 
explained this cunning trickery worthy of Nanaboush 
himself — Nanaboush the sly one, who was the first 
friend of the first men and fought for them against the 
evil manitos of nature. 

There were societies of Redcoat officers and nobles 
named for Saints who lived across the great waters. 
Saint Andrew for the Scotch; St. David for the Welsh; 
Saint George for the English — all British saints. Ameri- 
cans they said, would have none but an American saint 
for their powows ! And who was greater and more 
American than the holy Tamanend? 

Here Koguethagechton must have grinned as broadly 
as any of the Yanokies (see Appendix Note 2), as the 
Iroquois termed the New England palefaces. He had 
often wondered himself at the pompous mein of some of 
those Redcoat officials who seemed not to understand 
this land nor any of its people, red or white. 

Sometimes they treated their Red allies as though 
they were slaves instead of free men in a free land. As 


for the white children of the Great Father in England, 
his representatives here did certainly appear to regard 
them with scornful or amused tolerance as inferior 

Yes, the joke of the Yanokies was good. 

The manito of the Yanokies would be strong because 
of it. 

For they understood more than the joke they played. 
They understood that the Great Spirit made this land 
for his children to hunt and fish over and grow corn and 
other food in, wherever it pleased them. Had not he, 
the Grand Sachem's chief counsellor himself, very often 
smoked over such matters with his white brothers? 

They who had red hearts that could understand, 
knew that no man could really sell or own a foot of 
ground he no longer used, for it all belonged to the 
Great Spirit who made it. All were free to go and come 
where they pleased and to use any part of it they wished 
so long as they did not interfere with the rights of 
others occupying it at the time. The land was free as 
the air or the water. 

Nations did not "own" land even when they exercised 
their rights over a part of it. National boundaries were 
determined by the extent to which peace prevailed 
through mutual treaties between tribes and nations at 
any certain time. 

Long might Koguethagechton have reflected upon 
this weighty matter of threatened war between his 
friends and their King, before deciding what counsel he 
should offer Netawatwes the King had not the Congress 
of the Colonies at Philadelphia requested his advice. 

What the American Congress desired most was that 
the Indians be kept neutral in their struggle with King 
George. They did not ask violation of the treaty and 


alliance between the Red and White nations — only 

Could that be effected? 

Koguethagechton would see. He went west. 

Congress sent to interview him a second time Colonel 
George Morgan of Princeton, New Jersey. 

Colonel Morgan sought the Red sage at his western 
seat on the Muskingum river in Ohio, where many of 
the Delaware had moved in 1760. 

Now the Kings counsellor had himself become King. 
Netawatwes was dead. The wisest and best of the 
Delaware had been chosen to succeed him and this all 
agreed was he whom the white men knew as White 

Colonel Morgan was one of those Americans with a 
Red Heart and his mission to the new King won for 
him the highest honor the Delawares could bestow. 

Koguethagechton called him "Tamanend," a name 
he bore thereafter among both Americans and Indians. 

As for the Grand Sachem, he was given the rank of 
Captain in the Colonial Army. 

Our histories only record "Captain White Eyes" as 
first Delaware Captain and "Head Chief of the Turtle 
Tribe in Ohio." But as we shall see elsewhere in this 
story, the Turtle Tribe provided the Grand Sachems 
for one of the most powerful Indian Leagues in North 

Between "Captain White Eyes" and the messenger 
from Congress, was a tie of Tamanend to which both 
were faithful. At the risk of his life and position as 
chief, the Grand Sachem strove throughout the Revolu- 
tion to keep his people neutral, and to protect those 
Delaware Indians who had been converted to Christi- 
anity by the Moravians. 


The war called all Algonkins to espouse the cause of 
their British ally and this split the Delaware nation 
between loyalty to their Grand Sachem and their obliga- 
tions under what they supposed was a treaty between 
their nation and the English nation. The British were 
everywhere calling upon the Indians to fight for them 
as allies. Only White Eyes saw clearly that the British 
regarded all Indians as "subjects." 

His chief opponent, representing the British interests, 
was "Captain Pipe" sachem of the Wolf tribe, over 
whom he had many triumphs and who was himself a 
brave man. 

The Grand Sachem died of smallpox on a visit to 
Pittsburg in the winter of 1779-80 and among the dele- 
gations of condolence at his funeral was one from the 
Cherokee nation, ancient enemies of the Algonkins. 

He left a son, George White-Eyes and in 1785 Con- 
gress passed the following resolution with regard to 
him and in memory of his father (see Appendix Note 

"That Mr. Morgan be empowered and requested 
to continue the care and direction of George White- 
Eyes for one year, and the Board of Treasury take 
order for the payment of the expenses necessary to 
carry into execution the views of Congress in this 

So the White Tamanend befriended his dead friend's 
son and the American Congress recognized an obliga- 
tion, because of an ideal shared in common between 
them, which was native to the soil. 

That these events were not mere interludes in a 
scramble between British and Americans for the service 


of the "savages," but went more deeply into those 
spiritual values that brought the Tamanend ideal into 
future American policies, is attested by the fact that 
even before the Revolution, Koguethagechton was 
highly respected by the Colonials. 

He was then a War Chief of the Delawares and 
friendly toward the whites. The English, having won 
the French-Indian War, sent to induce the Delawares 
to renounce their "French allegiance." This was the 
answer to which he subscribed : 

"Brethren, when you have settled this peace and 
friendship and finished it well, and you send the great 
peace belt to me, I will send it to all the nations of my 
color; they will all join to it and we will hold it fast. 

"Brethren, when All the nations join to this friend- 
ship, then the day will shine clear over us. When we 
hear once more of you, and we join together, then the 
day will be still, and no wind or storm will come over 
to disturb us. 

"Now, Brethren, you know our hearts and what we 
have to say; be strong, if you do what we have now told 
you and in this peace all nations agree to join. Now 
Brethren, let the King of England know what our mind 
is as soon as you possibly can." 

He was not himself a Christian but vigorously op- 
posed the decision of his predecessor the Grand Sachem 
himself, to expell them from the Delaware country in 
Ohio, holding himself ready to renounce his own 
country, power and kindred rather than see injustice 
done. And his firmness won the Grand Sachem 
Netawatwes to acknowledge the justice of his attitude 
and to accept him as counsellor even before the Revolu- 
tionary war. 



And when Netawatwes died at Pittsburg in 1776 
Koguethagechton succeeded him. When the latter died, 
it was with the expressed desire that his people be 
allowed to learn the white man's civilization. 


Founder of Philadelphia and friend of the third and last 
Tamanend. The two understood each other because their 
religions were so much alike. 


Tamanend III and William Penn 

William Penn and his Holy Experiment came into 
direct contact with the Tamanend ideal in the person of 
the third Tamanend, Grand Sachem and chief of the 
Turtle tribe of the Delawares, who lived near where 
the city of Philadelphia now stands. 

He was perhaps the only European who thoroughly 
understood the aboriginal ideals of freedom, peace and 
religion ! For they were so closely akin to those of the 
great Quaker himself, that he was accepted as a friend 
and equal by Tamanend, who called Kim "My Elder 

During his short stay in America, Governor Penn 
was introduced to Indian ways of life, some of which 
shocked him beyond doubt, but never once did he give 
offence, even when accepting the hospitality of the 
Grand Sachem's home where aboriginal law decreed 
that entertainment and refreshment include an offer of 
female companionship by some member of the family! 

It must have seemed to Tamanend, if not to Penn 
himself, that the course of their lives had been directed 
by the Great Spirit toward their meeting in America, so 
precisely did the Quaker ideal fit into the Tamanend 

Not only by personal visits to each other's homes, 
where there must have been long conferences, but by 
long excursions together over the lands Penn was to 



"purchase" from the Indians, did these two build up a 
lasting friendship that became a legend all over the 
land east of the Mississippi River at least. 

No Quaker blood was thereafter shed in Pennsyl- 
vania by any Indian. 

The "children of Onas" (Onas the Delaware word 
for feather or pen, as miquon (see Appendix Note 1), 
another name, was the Ojibwa word) were regarded by 
the Delawares and Algonkins generally, as sacred 

Where Penn and Tamanend Met 

"Quakerism was a system of polity, as well as a 
religion. It taught the equality of men in their 
political relations — their common right to liberty 
of thought and action — to express opinions — to 
worship God — to concur in the enactment of 
general laws; but it found the sanctions of this 
equality, not in the usages of ancient nations, like 
the classic republicans — not in a mere convenient 
arrangement of checks and counterchecks of power 
— like more modern reformers; it found these 
sanctions lying far deeper, in the very nature of 
man, in that supremacy which it assigned to the 
divine light in each individual." 

— {Life of Wm. Penn, 
by Wm. Hepworth Dixon. Page 57.) 

In simpler language, the American aboriginal could 
accept this statement as descriptive of his own religion! 

It was the height of every young warrior's ambition 
to some day be admitted to the Priests House, called 
among the Delawares and other Algonkins, the 


Admission meant communion between the individual 
and the Great Spirit who made everything. That 
"divine light in each individual" as the Quakers ex- 
pressed it, was the Manito of the Algonkin, the Orenda 
of the Iroquois, the Wakonda of the Sioux. This 
"spirit power" possessed by every individual Indian in 
America, by whatever name he called it, led him to 
regard first the "spirit" or Manito of any friend or foe 
with whom he dealt. 

In other words, of more modern use, he was a past 
master at recognizing character and reading it. The 
mental and spiritual values decided his course of action 
to a much larger extent than things and events physical. 

And so, a Tamanend could see in William Penn a 
kindred soul, himself worthy of the name. 

It would be interesting but out of place here, to com- 
pare the life of Penn, step by step from the time he 
became a Quaker, with the Tamanend ideal already 
developed in America through untold centuries of 
aboriginal evolution. By 1662 Penn had perfected the 
outlines of his Holy Experiment — nothing less than to 
establish in the New World, a great colony for all 
peoples, where no man could be persecuted for his 
religious, political or any other beliefs, but earn his 
living in perfect freedom of thought and action. Both 
freedom of person and of trade were to be safeguarded. 

His surveyor and chief lieutenant were already some 
months in the new land and had acquainted the Indians 
with the designs of their employer, when Penn landed 
October 27, 1682 at Newcastle to be received by the 
polyglot inhabitants in holiday spirit. 

He "Came as a Friend" — as the Indians themselves 
would have expressed it in their records — rather than 
as Governor of a territory lately ceded by the Duke of 


York who had it as a gift from his brother the English 
King, who had no other right to it of course than the 
claim of victory over the Dutch who were the first to 
claim it. Tamanend, the Grand Sachem, could with 
equal right claim it as the land of his own people because 
they occupied it centuries before the whites arrived. 

However, Penn was not concerned with the legal 
aspects of ownership in the land any more than 
Tamanend. He expected to conciliate all people, 
recognize and extinguish all claims that the Holy 
Experiment might not fail. To this end he was pre- 
pared to devote his entire fortune and his life. He had 
no means of knowing whether his policy with the 
savages would be successful. 

A Frenchman, Duponceau, is said to have suggested 
the following scene for an historical picture. The biog- 
rapher of Penn accepts it as far truer to the facts than 
other artistic fancies. 

"In the center of the foreground, only distinguished 
from the few companions of his voyage, who have yet 
landed, by the nobleness of his mein, and a light blue 
silken sash tied around his waist, stands William Penn; 
erect in stature, every motion indicating grace, his 
countenance lighted up with hope and honest pride — in 
every limb and feature the expression of a serene and 
manly beauty. (He was only 38 at the time.) 

"The young officer before him, dressed in the gay 
costume of the English service, is his lieutenant, Mark- 
ham, come to welcome his relative to the new land, and 
to give an account of his own stewardship. On the 
right, stand the chief settlers of the district, arrayed in 
their national costumes, the light hair and quick eye of 
the Swede finding a good foil in the stolid look of the 
heavy Dutchman, who doffs his cap, but doubts whether 


he shall take the pipe out of his mouth, even to say 
welcome to the new governor. 

"A little apart, as if studying with the intense eager- 
ness of Indian skill the physiognomy of the ruler who 
has come with his children to occupy their hunting 
grounds, stands the wise and noble leader of the Red 
Men, Tamanend, and a party of the Lenni Lenape in 
their picturesque paints and costume." 

The Grand Sachem had speedy opportunity to 
appraise this new white governor, for the very next 
day, in taking formal possession of his little kingdom, 
Penn explained his ideals to the people to their great 
astonishment and joy. 

There was to be a free and virtuous state, in which 
people should rule themselves; he was granted extra- 
ordinary powers, but did not expect to use them save for 
the general good and then only provisionally. Every 
man should enjoy liberty of conscience and his fair 
share of political power. As proof of his intentions he 
renewed in his own name the commissions of all existing 

Chester was chosen for the first General Assembly 
meeting, which had already, under his orders been 
elected by universal suffrage. 

One of the first acts of this body was to unite the 
upper and lower provinces along the Delaware river. 
The views of Penn were adopted and made law as fast 
as they could be read and acted upon. The whole 
catalogue of legal crimes according to English law were 
blotted out with the exception of murder and treason. 
In three days, this legislative body of farmers com- 
pleted their work and went back to their plows. 

Civil and religious liberty were at last assured. This 
was the ideal land of tolerance of which many had 


dreamed but none as yet had practiced. Governor 
Bradford, one of the noblest of the Pilgrim Fathers 
denounced toleration as tending to misrule and con- 
fusion ! Those who had been coming to America for 
conscience sake, often demanded death for those who 
would not change their views to conform to their own. 

The Inquisition and Star Chamber horrors of Europe 
were no worse than the practices of various groups seek- 
ing asylum in the New World because of intolerance at 
home ! What each really desired, was to be free to 
practice their own religion — and force it on others who 
insisted on living with them. Penn proposed a freedom 
of thought scarcely dreamed of in his day — and it 
accorded with the Tamanend ideal only, of all the ideals 
in America. 

At a place called by the Indians, Wecacoae, three 
Swedes were "owners" or occupiers of the land and 
Penn purchased it from them on their own terms. And 
here he founded his "City of Brotherly Love," Phila- 
delphia, the plans and even name for which were all in 

Twenty-three shiploads of emmigrants followed 
Penn and before the great city was even begun many 
were living in caves waiting the new freedom that they 
had come so far to enjoy. 

Within a year from Penn's landing, a hundred houses, 
many of stone, had been built, the whole future of the 
city planned, more than 300 farms settled, sixty vessels 
of light and heavy tonnage had sailed into the Delaware 
River and Penn remarked to Lord Halifax, that "I 
must without vanity say : 'I have led the greatest colony 
into America that ever any man did on private credit.' " 

He was building schools, bringing over printing 
presses and declared that he expected to do in seven 


years what his neighboring colonies had taken forty to 
achieve. He even put into operation the postal service, 
and presided at a trial for witchcraft where his decision 
was such as to discourage any more superstitious ex- 
hibitions of this sort, common enough to other colonies 
and so often spelling death to the accused in New 

Penn merely bound her over to keep the peace ! 

The jury found her guilty of having the reputation 
of witch but not guilty to manner and form as indicted ! 

In two years the number of houses in Philadelphia 
had doubled. 

All men seemed to love this most affable of men who 
performed prodigies of labor for human beings through 
the force of a compelling personality. 

The watchful eyes of the Grand Sachem Tamanend 
must have beamed with pleasure each time he watched 
the results flowing so easily from the Governor's efforts. 

His intercourse with the Indians was always cordial 
and is thus described by his biographer. 

"Putting away the formal stiffness of English 
manners, he won their simple hearts by his confidence 
and easy bearing. He walked with them alone into the 
forests. He sat with them on the ground to watch the 
young men dance and perform their exercises. 

"He joined with them in their feasts and ate of their 
roasted acorns and hominy. When they expressed their 
rapturous delight at seeing the great Onas imitate their 
national customs, not to be outdone in any of those 
feats of personal prowess which the Red Men value so 
highly, he rose from his seat, entered the list with the 
leapers and beat them all; at seeing which the younger 
warriors could hardly control their admiration!" 

As pointed out, Penn "bought" the site of Phila- 


delphia from the Swedish occupants of the land at their 
own valuation. 

He also "purchased" it from the aboriginal occu- 
pants — the Delawares. 

To celebrate this he and Tamanend met with their 
followers under a Great Elm at the place of kings, 
Saki-maxon (corrupted now into Shackamaxon) where 
royal treaties had been made by kings before Columbus 
discovered America (see Appendix Note 4) . Here the 
calumet had been smoked and national differences ar- 
ranged for at least 150 years under this great Peace 
Tree of the Delawares, and no one knows when it was 

Tamanend placed on his own head the symbol of 
his power — a chaplet into which a small horn was 
twisted — which immediately made the spot a sacred 
one and the life of every person present inviolable. He 
then seated himself in the center of his sachems with 
the older ones at his right and left. The middle aged 
warriors were in a semi-circle at his back and behind 
them the younger men stood. 

All those sachems had agreed to transfer their rights 
in the land to Onas and Tamanend himself had signed 
with them. This meeting was to seal the treaty. Penn 
spoke to them in their own tongue ! 

The Great Spirit was their common Father and 
knew every secret thought of White Man or Red. He 
knew that it was the desire of Penn and his children to 
live in peace, be friends with their Red brothers and to 
do no wrong. The Great Spirit wished them all to live 
together as brothers, as children of a common parent, 
as if they had one head, one heart, one body. If ill was 
done to one, all would suffer. If good, all would gain. 
(See Appendix Note 5). 


The children of Onas never used the rifle or trusted 
to the sword; they met their Red brothers on the broad 
path of good faith and good will. The intended to do 
no harm. They had no fear in their hearts. They be- 
lieved their brothers were just. 

Penn then explained the clauses of the treaty one by 

The Children of Onas and the Lenni Lenape from 
that day were brothers, the doors of each open to the 
other and all their paths free and open. Neither should 
believe false reports of the other but should come and 
see for themselves as brothers to brothers, so that such 
reports should be buried in a bottomless pit. They 
should assist each other against all who would disturb 
them or do them hurt. 

They should tell their children of this chain of friend- 
ship that it might grow stronger and be kept bright and 
clean as long as the waters ran down the creeks and 
rivers and the sun, moon and stars should endure. 

There were no oaths nor official red tape about this 
treaty which was ratified on both sides by simple agree- 

Voltaire declared it the only one the world has ever 
known that was "never sworn to and never broken." 

William Penn told Tamanend that, although his 
King had granted him the whole country, from the Cape 
of Henlopen to regions stretching beyond the great 
mountains to the Northern Lakes, he did not intend to 
take from him a single rood of their ancient hunting 
grounds, but to buy from him and his people, with their 
own full consent and good will. He would never allow 
his children to wrong the Indians, cheat them of their 
fish, their wild game, their beaver skins by lies in the 
market place. 


The children of Onas would never refuse to pay a 
fair price for every article purchased. When a quarrel 
arose between white and red men, six Indians and six 
English should judge of the matter. 

Penn's representative exchanged presents with the 
sachems and received a wampum belt with the assur- 
ance — 

"We will live in peace with Onas and his children as 
long as the sun shall endure." 

When Penn said to them they were to consider the 
land common to the two races and that the Indians were 
to use freely its resources whenever they might have 
occasion for them, he proved to Tamanend that he both 
understood and respected the law of the Great Spirit 
who was the sole owner of the land itself, so that all 
transfers of rights and sites were subject to this very 
provision — that food, clothing and shelter, as resources 
of the land, were free to all, gifts of the Great Spirit. 

The Great Elm Peace Tree stood until 1810 when a 
storm blew it down. Part of it was sent to the Penn 
family in England and relic hunters got the rest. A slip 
from the old tree was replanted so the Great Treaty 
should not be forgotten. 

Had this Great Treaty been kept as religiously by 
the whites as by the people of Tamanend, much of their 
relations with the natives would have been different in 
the years to come. Five years after Penn's death in 
England (1718) the first red man lost his life in a 
quarrel with a white. 

And the Indians prayed that his life might be spared 
— which it was ! When the murderer died shortly 
thereafter, they said the Great Spirit had avenged their 

When Penn found it wise to return to England, 


where he feared the tampering of others with his colony, 
virtually all power had been placed in the hands of the 
people. He said — 

"I purpose to leave myself and successors no power 
of doing mischief, that the will of one man may not 
hinder the good of a whole country !" 

Again he called together the sachems of the Delaware 
under their Grand Sachem, Tamanend and concluded 
separate treaties of peace and friendship with each one. 
He told them he would return if the Great Spirit willed 
and asked them to drink no more fire-water. He for- 
bade his own children to sell it to them ! 

It was some 17 years before Penn return to Phila- 
delphia where the recent French-Indian war and pirates 
had created chaos. The Quakers were not in such good 
standing with their neighbors because of their pacificist 
attitude. Penn changed conditions at once. He had 
the necessary laws passed, settled in his home of Penns- 
bury near Trenton. This place had been the residence 
of the ancient Delaware Kings because it was an almost 
impregnable natural fortress. 

As such, it will be recognized by students as the 
"Shore" seat of the Grand Sachems who alternated it 
with their seat on the Susquehanna. 

This circumstance doubtless increased the regard in 
which the Indians held him, if that were possible. As 
originally intended by him he was to meet in council with 
them twice a year to renew the treaty of friendship and 
he continued to do this so long as he remained in the 

The Delaware and Susquehanna tribes had been 
enjoying the fruits of the Great Treaty of 1682, at 
which Tamanend was present in person, for so many 
years that on the return of Penn, they sought to include 


in their semi-annual councils, other tribes seeking the 
shelter of the Children of Onas. 

The Susquehanna tribes here alluded to, were doubt- 
less Lenape peoples or at least Algonkins living on the 
Susquehanna and therefore rightly included in the 
councils with the Lenape on the Delaware, for the new 
nations now introduced to Penn, whom he met in April 
1701, included both Algonkins and Iroquois. Their 
leaders were: 

1. Connoodaghto, Sakim of the Susquehannas or 
Susquehannocks, otherwise known as Conestogas, an 
Iroquoian people overthrown by the Iroquoian League 
of Five Nations in New York, in 1675, again defeated 
by the Marylanders the following year, and forced to 
seek adoption by the Oniedas, one of the five nations. 
They had been the terror of Algonkins along the 
Atlantic Coast in the time of Lord Baltimore and long 
a thorn in the flesh to the New York Iroquois. 

2. Wopatha, Sakim of the Shawnees, Algonkins 
whose connection with the Great League was very 
ancient. They had left the main body after the Talaga 
War while yet in the Ohio Valley, settled in the South, 
sometimes fighting and sometimes friendly with the 
Cherokee, when the latter were at loggerheads with 
Siouan Catawba. Even in Florida and elsewhere they 
came in contact, generally as enemies, with the Muskoki 
or Creek League of Indians. They were widely 
scattered from North to South, the most nomadic of all 
the League nations. 

Early in the Seventeenth Century, those in Tennessee 
were driven out by the Chickasaws and Cherokee and 
helped the Iroquoian Eries and Andastes against the 
Five Nations but were defeated in 1672 — ten years 
prior to Perm's treaty with Tamanend. Then they 


settled in the Siouan Catawba country but were driven 
out into Muskoki territory. Also some of them 
scattered in Ohio, New England and Pennsylvania. 

Their great stronghold was at the mouth of the 
Scioto River in Ohio, which they seem to have held 
from the time they left the parent stem, despite the 
recapture of the Ohio Valley by the Iroquois. But so 
roving a nation, always a puzzle to historians, could be 
really "defeated" and made "dependant on the 
Iroquois" only in small sections at any one time. . 

The presumption of Penn at this time, was probably 
that they were dependants of the Iroquois. 

3. Weewhinhough, Sakim of the Ganawese. 

4. Ahookassong, a brother and ambassador of the 
King or head chief of the Iroquois League of Five 

5. The Delawares presumably were present at this 
conference also since they initiated the gathering, 
although they are not specifically mentioned as being 

Our historians have generally agreed with the 
Iroquois, that at this time, and long before, the Dela- 
wares were "dependant on the Iroquois" because of 
their defeat in an ancient war between them, at which 
time the Delawares were driven east of the river of 
that name and lost their rights to the west side to the 
Iroquois. The latter were accustomed very often to 
taunt the Delawares with their humiliation and to call 
them "women" who would not fight. 

So it is possible that Penn may have taken this view 
of the matter also when receiving the above mentioned 
tribes at the intercession of the Delawares themselves, 
doubtless at the instance of Tamanend. 

However I do not think it probable, for Penn had 


known Tamanend too intimately and it was at a council 
at Philadelphia July 6, 1694 (prior to Penn's return) 
that Tamanend himself had refused the Iroquois re- 
quest that the Delawares join them in an attack on the 
English. The Grand Sachem did so in these words : 

"We and the Christians of this river have always had 
a free roadway to one another and though sometimes a 
tree has fallen across the road yet we have still removed 
it again and kept the path clear and we design to con- 
tinue the old friendship that has come between us and 

These were not the words of Iroquois dependants nor 
did the Iroquois reply by a declaration of war. The 
Delawares considered themselves still the equals of the 
Iroquois regardless of what the Iroquois considered! 

They were governed by King Tamanend, a sufficient 
indication to any Lenape historian that there was peace 
between them and all nations. 

Therefore the probable explanation of this extra- 
ordinary meeting between Algonkins, Iroquois and 
Penn, with an ambassador from the Five Nations 
present, was precisely what it appeared to be on the face 
of it — an effort by Tamanend to conciliate whites and 
natives between whom he foresaw future trouble, unless 
inviolable treaties of peace could be effected. 

Most certainly he would have wanted to protect his 
Elder Brother from harm by including both Iroquois 
and other Algonkins in the provisions of the Great 
Treaty of 1682. 

And this was accomplished at the council of 1701. 
Penn firmly believed that in making a treaty with the 
Five Nations he had rendered a great service to all 
the colonies. 

The Delawares pledged themselves for the good 


behavior of the Susquehannas and Potomacs. War was 
still raging on the frontiers. The treaties probably did 
more to protect the Quakers than any other whites. 

They were among the last acts of Penn, who left for 
England later in the same year, never to return. The 
Indians came from every part of the country to bid him 
farewell. He gave them gifts, introduced them to the 
Council and exacted pledges from it to carry out his 
wishes as though he still remained at Pennsbury. 

Tamanend continued King of the Lenape until 1718. 
He probably resigned his office or automatically ceased 
to function as peace king because his people became 
involved in war. His intended successor Weheequickhon 
"alias Andrew" whom he mentioned himself in 1697, 
seems not to have had that distinction, for Allumpees 
or Sassoonan was elected. 

It has been suggested that Sassoonan owed his elec- 
tion to Iroquois politics within the Lenape nation and 
this may have been so. Certainly the Iroquois would 
never have forgiven Tamanend for refusing to join 
them against the whites, although precisely the same 
thing happened under the new Grand Sachem in 1726 
when the Iroquois wanted to fight the British. 

Tamanend is supposed to have died about 1750 a 
very old man. Many legends tell of different places 
where he lived and there is or was a grave in Bucks 
County, Pennsylvania, supposed to have been Taman- 
end's, though it seems to have been pretty conclusively 
proven that the legends of his death in connection with 
the grave arose from a confusion of personalities. (See 
Appendix Note 6). 

That he upheld the real policies and fame of the 
other two Tamanends, there can be no doubt. 

It was upon his fame however, and the later legends 


that clustered around it, that the so called Tammany 
Societies after the Revolution were based. The pre- 
Revolutionary and Revolutionary "Saint Tammany" 
organizations were somewhat different affairs more 
closely allied to the true Tamanend ideals. 

The New York effort to nationalize a reorganization 
of these patriotic societies of the Revolution, while 
worthy and engaging the interest of many veterans at 
its inception, had the curious misfortune to make it a 
mixture of Iroquois and Algonkin customs, mostly 
Iroquois. The "Wigwam" (an Algonkin word) was 
patterned after the Iroquois "Long House." 

The mixture was similar to those concocted by James 
Fenimore Cooper in his glorification of the noble red 
men and by Longfellow in his beautiful poem Hiawatha, 
where an Iroquois Chief becomes an Algonkin hero and 
marries a Siouan princess! 

The Tamanend ideal presumed to be included in the 
ritual and ceremonies, was the garbled version of a 
generation that had never known Tamanend. The 
marvel is that it retained so much of the original as it 

With the advent of European civilization, fire-water 
and guns, the ideals of the Stone Age Tamanends could 
be kept alive in Red breasts only through the powerful 
personality of another Tamanend. William Penn's 
friend was that man. 

Yet this third Tamanend was but the titular King 
of the once powerful Lenape League, which had slowly 
melted before the superior numbers and magic of the 
white men, intent upon their own establishment and 
utterly unmindful of aboriginal conception of human 
rights to the gifts of the Great Spirit. 

Dealing with an admittedly superior people, whose 


laws and customs were as much a mystery to the Indian 
as theirs were to the Whites, this Tamanend had only 
the shadow of that power once possessed by his an- 
cestors to support him. 

He was supreme among the Delaware tribes alone, to 
begin with. Long ago, as we shall see, these tribes had 
insisted on setting up a separate division of the League 
their King was presumed to control. The authority of 
the Grand Sachem had become almost a legend, else- 
where than in Pennsylvania and Maryland. 

Yet this Third Tamanend had so effectively blended 
the ancient Tamanend ideals with those of European 
origin that when distinctly American ideals resulted 
from the blend, they had powerful influence on the 
whole life of the new nation from its birth to the present 

In these first two chapters, we have endeavored to 
show to what extent this was done. 

Let us now turn to the original Tamanend, first of 
the name, and show from purely native sources, just 
what the original ideals were, so that we may see how 
truly they were preserved through the course of 


Before Tamanend 

Kitchemanito the Great Spirit made all things in- 
cluding lesser spirits or manitos and "manbeings" 
which became the ancestors of both humans and 

Everything had a manito for its protection and there 
were good spirits and bad spirits. The good spirits, 
who were also creators of things themselves, were under 
the guidance of Dzhemanito the Good Spirit, while 
those which were evil and therefore opposed to those 
which were good, were under the authority of 
Makimani, the Bad Spirit. 

Aboriginal American theology did not quibble over 
the obvious truth that both were the creations of the 
Kitchemanito because the "Great Spirit" was not a 
"God," in the sense that our more enlightened modern 
theologians might understand him. Kitchemanito 
simply Was — and caused all else to be. 

His creations were to become good or bad according 
as they opposed each other with the welfare of human 
beings in mind. What was good for the Red Man had 
good manito. What was bad for him had bad manito 
— and that was all there was to it. 

Makimani was a Bad Spirit because he made bad 
things such as monsters and gnats and flies. Winter 
therefore was full of bad manito. The weather came 
alternately under the influence of good and evil manito. 



An enemy was naturally filled with bad manito although 
it might be very powerful manito. If he were a very 
brave warrior, and especially if you had the good for- 
tune to slay him, he might even be credited with the 
possession of powerful good manito, which thereupon 
might transfer to his slayer. 

Dzhemanito was the special guardian of the 
Midewiwan, the house of priests into which all warriors 
were ambitious to be initiated. For in this house of 
mysteries, the foremost men of every nation were taught 
the laws of the Great Spirit. 

These laws were of such great antiquity that their 
very origin was attributed to the Great Spirit that per- 
vaded everything in nature. No man had made them, 
but Nature itself proved them. 

There was a time, as related in the first songs of the 
Red Score, when all beings were friends and were happy 
and contented together. Men and the mothers that 
had been given them for companionship and to keep the 
race going, were easily pleased, had no particular work 
to do and therefore spent their time by enjoying them- 
selves in any way they pleased. The fairy manitos 
provided them with food whenever they wished it. 

Into this ideal existence a great many bad things 
came under the leadership of an evil being who stole 
secretly among the Lenni Lenape or "First Men," 
according to their story, which is the one we are chiefly 
concerned with in this narrative. 

This evil being is spoken of as a Wakon Powako or 
literally "Mystery Priest Snake" or "Spirit Priest 
Snake" and was a very strong snake indeed. 

Because the word "Wakon" is Siouan and not Al- 
gonkin, and the Sioux were always the great foes of the 
Lenni Lenape, we are probably informed here as to the 


causes of the ancient feud between the two nations, so 
old as to have become legend when the Lenape began 
to record their history. There was much unhappiness, 
wickedness, crime, bad weather, sickness and death 
among the first men after this person or being came 
among them. These things all being governed by bad 
manitos and the priest in whose wake they followed 
appearing as a powerful magician, the logical conclusion 
was that He was a very evil person. Therefore his 
"snake" was both a strong and a bad snake — the snake 
being another of the guardians of the mysteries as well 
as a term used to designate an enemy. 

At this time, the Lenape and their friends the 
Iroquois all lived together in friendship on the Atlantic 
Coast. The sudden invasion of sickness, say old 
legends, caused them to move further inland, down the 
St. Lawrence river. But before the move inward, 
Dzhemanito caused their great leader and champion, 
Nanaboush to receive the mysteries of the Midewiwan 
including the healing powers of nature. 

The first establishment of the Midewiwan was upon 
the Atlantic. 

It is not improbable that Nanaboush really was ruler 
of the native population of eastern Canada and North 
America and the legend that makes him wage a long 
fight with evil manitos, who eventually are defeated and 
sue for peace, by offering him all the secrets of their 
power, had some base in fact, other than a mere 
mythology built of the struggle between such forces of 
nature as winter and summer, light and darkness. 

The eastern Siouans, as we shall see further along in 
this story, were a highly cultured race and possessed the 
mysteries of the Wakon Kitchewa, otherwise known in 
the Algonkin tongues as Midewiwan. If the "Wakon 


Powako" — termed Maskanako, Big Snake, later in the 
Walam Olum story — was in fact one of the Siouan 
warrior-priests on some expedition among the peoples 
to the north of him, the contest between this "mighty 
magician" and the national culture hero of the Al- 
gonkins and Iroquois might very well have led to the 
former initiating his rival into the true mysteries. 

This of course is speculation. 

What the legends that begin the Walam Olum of the 
Lenape actually Say, is, that this invader brought war, 
monsters and a great flood to his aid. The flood de- 
stroyed all before it. Monsters swallowed many of 
the struggling fugitives who found refuge in the high- 
lands where they were saved by Nanaboush and his 
Spirit Daughter. 

Nanaboush lived in Tula or Turtle Island, which I 
think in this instance refers to the mountains of Labra- 
dor so far as the Lenape were concerned. For that 
matter the whole continent was regarded as an "Island" 
and appears in mythology as a Turtle's Back. 

After the flood, men were reduced to living in caves 
and holes in the ground, gradually they recovered them- 
selves and began to organize by tribes. This flood 
appears to have been the result of some great natural 
change in weather conditions such as the melting of the 
last ice cap. 

The Five Nations of New York had a tradition of 
escaping from the horrors of this time. The Great 
Spirit led them through a gap in the mountains into 
New York. They had lived north of the St. Lawrence 
where giants and monsters wrecked their homes. The 
Master reorganized them and placed them in their 
locations where the white men first knew them. 

But the Lenape and the rest of the Iroquoians spread 


throughout Tula Land, eventually to become a strong 
league of hunters and home makers or farmers. The 
Lenape were the hunters and always considered them- 
selves the finest and best of all peoples. Their Iroquoian 
friends, the Wendats, were to become known in history 
as Wyandottes or Hurons. The ancient name of them 
among the Algonkins was Talamatan. 

This Algonkin league was divided originally into four 
divisions or clans, whose totems (clan badges) were 
the Turtle, Eagle, Beaver and Wolf. At its head was 
their Chief High priest, called the Nakapowa or snake- 
priest. It will be recalled that the legendary enemy 
priest was a Powako or priest snake. 

The Great Lenape League was fully organized at 
the time the historical portion of the Walam Olum 
begins at the end of the sixth century of our era. 

That its evolution and upbuilding must have been 
accompanied by much war and bloodshed over countless 
centuries is doubtless true. But the Nakapowa loved 

We gather from many native legends that in their 
westward movement, the Lenape were very probably 
preceded by other Algonkin peoples from the vicinity of 
the Ottawa river and indeed still other Algonkin tribes 
already occupied much of the land through which they 
passed north of the Great Lakes, to establish their 
national headquarters on Rainey River, where history 

On reaching the country of "the Lakes" the League 
encountered its first serious obstacle to further progress 
in the western Siouans, ancestors of the Dakotah tribes. 
Buffalo Land, west of Winnepeg, was a famous hunt- 
ing ground while the lakes were then an even greater 
paradise for fishermen than now. The rivalry between 


Siouxan and Algonkin hunters would very naturally lead 
to strife and war. 

The well organized divisions of the League covered 
the land of the lakes thoroughly, with a military pre- 
cision that discouraged all other races save the Siouans. 
The League held all the good hunting ground from the 
Minisipi or Churchill river to the Rockies in the west 
and south to the Assiniboine river. 

Further south were the Siouans, who struggled 
valiantly to retain their northern hunting grounds with- 
out recognizing the dominance of the League. Theirs 
was a great League too! 

But they were forced further and further southward 
until only one of the Siouan tribes, the Knisteneau or 
"Stone Men" — modern Assiniboines — remained to ally 
themselves with the League, or at least with the an- 
cestors of the modern Cree, who may or may not have 
been Lenape, but were undoubtedly within the protec- 
tion of the League as were all other Algonkin tribes, 
some of them with reluctance to be sure, as after events 

The northern division of the League being further 
removed from this strife, was regarded as free to send 
out its bands for exploration or settlement in any 
direction. But the homes of the more southerly divi- 
sions were burned and destroyed by the enemy raids. 

The Nakapowa advised a return to their old eastern 
homes rather than continue this sort of existence. The 
tribes became divided on the question of remaining in 
possession of their rich hunting and fishing preserves at 
the expense of continual warfare, or migrating east- 
ward to Akomenep, "Snake Island" in search of peace, 
plenty and prosperity. 

"Snake Island" was probably no other than the 


modern Manitoulin, one of the sacred places marked by 
a Midewiwan establishment, and the search for it 
meant merely a return to the old eastern locations. 
"Snake" also means "enemy" when used in other con- 
nections than those referring to the mysteries, so it is 
not surprising that the venture in search of "Snake 
Island" finally agreed to between three of the League 
Divisions, never seems to have "found" it. 

Instead, the Lenape "found" and conquered "Snake 
Land" — as will presently appear. 

First, the great army did travel back eastward, 
lingering and fishing along the northern shores of Lake 
Superior. Then on a winter's night they crossed the 
frozen waters of Sault (590 A.D.) St. Marie into what 
is now the upper peninsula of Michigan, where they 
found new hunting grounds and plenty of fishing. 

Here were the Lenape headquarters for some years. 
But Michigan was already occupied to the south of 
them and possibly around them, by other ancient Algon- 
kin tribes, not at all willingly submissive to the League. 
These were the Muskodesh or ancestors of the Sauk, 
Fox and "Fire People" or Mascoutens as the French 
called them. 

Even here war raised its head and evidently in a 
manner to infuriate the younger generation (who had 
grown up in this "Spruce-Pine Land") that in no way 
diminished their pride of ancestry and loyalty to the 

When old Bald Eagle, last of the political Nako- 
powas died the people elected a warrior King, Kolawil 
or Beautiful Head, and fought a successful battle 
against certain enemies who held a fortified mound. 

What was in the wind, was a conspiracy against the 
league by certain of its members, who were allying 


themselves with the Sioux. After this, the Kings for- 
got peace and Spruce Pine Land until the war became 
a reality. Then they acted from their old capital and 
sent military expeditions both east and south where 
danger evidently threatened. 

The Great Snake War— 633-54 A.D. 

This Great Snake War, began about the second 
quarter of the seventh century, while the Mayan Empire 
in Mexico was in its "Golden Age" and continued 
during the time that the Toltecs arrived in Mexico 
from the North, according to Morton, (although many 
suppose the Toltecs were from the tropics). During 
the war, the Aztecs according to their story, were 
starting from some place in North America into Mexico 
and the Nahuas, Toltec tribes settled the table lands of 
that country, making Tula their capital. 

Mohammed the prophet of Islam had just died when 
this war began, and before it was finished his followers 
had conquered Syria, Persia, North Africa and a part 
of Spain. 

Pepin and his sons had founded a new dynasty to rule 
the Franks and Bagdad was founded by the Caliphs of 
Islam just about the time the Grand Sachem of the 
League found himself King of Snakeland. 

The Great Snake War, according to our chronology, 
lasted for 133 years and no less than thirteen Kings 
reigned and fought in it, the last ten of whom could not 
even be named by the historian who later made a record 
of it. 

At the close of this war, the Great Lenape League 
had possession of all the land west of the Mississippi as 
far south as the Missouri river and west to the Rocky 


Mountains, exclusive of the Missouri River Valley 
where the Siouan League was forced to retire. 

The first peace King of the Lenape was called 
Langundowi, which means Peaceable. 

His successors up to the time of the first Tamanend, 
likewise had significant names indicating not only the 
individual, but furnishing volumes of information to the 
native minstrels and historians who might afterward 
sing the songs of the Walum Olum in full as it were. 

For the records of the American Indian were memory 
aids rather than manuscripts recording specific events. 
One word, to the initiated, might contain a chapter. 

It is interesting to recount these names of the Grand 
Sachems in connection with what was going on in the 
more civilized nations of the world at the time they 
ruled in this one. 

First after Peaceable, was Not Black or as we should 
phrase it in modern language, "Not so Bad." 

These two names as will readily be surmised, explain 
that after the coming of peace, conditions in the newly 
conquered land and relations between the Lenape and 
the conquered enemy were "not so bad." 

Peace treaties were always sacred affairs brought 
about by the wisest elders and Mide warriors of both 
sides to the conflict, assembled in council and invoking 
the Great Spirit as witness to the solemn engagements 
entered into. 

Every teller of the story would know that the Great 
"Calumet" or Pipe of Peace had been smoked in this 
council and that so long as the peace king reigned there 
could be no war. When the dance to the Calumet had 
been danced and the ambassadors of the former foe had 
returned to their homes, knowing well their persons 
were sacred and none would molest them on the journey, 


the villages of the conquered Sioux would indeed feel 
that the outlook was "Not Black." 

In Europe Charlemagne was destroying the Lombard 

Much loved the next Lenape peace king was a con- 
temporary of Harun-al Rashid of Arabian Nights 
fame. During his reign, Northmen were invading 
England. As the name indicates, the Lenape had de- 
voted themselves to conciliate the inhabitants of the 
land they so recently fought. What the League had 
won was peace — and rights to hunt in that land — not 
the land itself, which was the property of the Great 

The Siouan villages were left undisturbed once the 
war was over, and they were beginning to love the new 
King — or so the Lenape imagined. 

The Holy One was elected about the time Charle- 
magne was being crowned Emperor at Rome. This 
Lenape King could scarcely have been other than the 
Kitchemite or High Priest of the Mide himself. 

No Blood was elected at the beginning of the 32 Years 
War in Europe to subjugate and Christianize the 
Saxons, during which time Charlemagne the Emperor 
died. The Lenape nor any other Indian nation, ever 
quarrelled over religion. 

Snow Father and Big Teeth, the next Kings present 
us with names indicating more interest in the ancient 
northern homeland where the League stronghold was. 
And this indicates a rather thorough conciliation of the 
conquered Sioux who now would be living in amity with 
their Algonkin neighbors. 


Beginning of the W alam Olum (837 A.D.) 

Olumapi, The Tally Maker, who first began the 
Walam Olum, may have learned the art of recording 
history in mnemonic symbols on burnt or painted bundles 
of sticks, from the more cultured Siouans. While he 
was at this peaceful pursuit, three royal rivals in 
Europe, were fighting over the Roman Empire of 
Charlemagne and dividing it into three parts, more or 
less corresponding to those of ancient Gaul as men- 
tioned by Julius Caesar. 

Shiver-with-Cold, the Tally Maker's successor, seems 
to have turned the attention oof his people to this 
warmer land in order to invite settlement and to inspire 
them with desire to practice the domestic arts of the 
Sioux. The national histories of France, Italy and 
Germany began with the Treaty of Verdun, during this 
peace king's reign! Also the Russian Empire was 
founded by Rurik, the Saracens were besieging Rome 
and the Northmen plundered Paris. 

Introduction of Agriculture. (859 A.D.) 

Huminiend, whom irreverent pioneers would prob- 
ably have called "King Homminy," though the name 
means Corn-Breaker, lived while European Popes were 
excommunicating each other and wars were about the 
only thing thought of abroad. This great King went 
south into Iowa and Missouri to study first hand the 
manner in which the Sioux grow and store corn. His 
people were hunters and fishers and not farmers. But 
he introduced them to agriculture and made them like 

Strong-Man probably followed with the introduction 


of other Siouan culture programs. He was evidently- 
successful as his name implies, and strengthened his 
nation by increasing the education of his people in the 
arts of peace. 

Salt Man who followed him, needs no explanation as 
the King who introduced the Lenape to salt manu- 
facture, at which the Sioux were the greatest adepts. In 
order to do so, they must have learned basket weaving 
and pottery making and these things, together with 
weaving generally, were probably among the innova- 
tions of Salt Man's predecessor. 

The Lenape, like most Indians of the north, did not 
use salt. Their Eskimo neighbors and enemies thor- 
oughly abhorred it and indeed few ancient Americans 
either manufactured or used it. Hence this innovation 
by Shiwapi or Salt Man, marked a distinct era in 
Lenape history. It was probably regarded by them as 
the final touch that made them equal in civilization 
with the Sioux! During Salt Man's reign, Alfred the 
Great in England was about the only European monarch 
that may be regarded as the peer of this civilizer of the 
Stone Age. The Norsemen were just colonizing Ice- 
land, previously colonized as well as discovered by the 
Irish. Pueblo tribes were occupying the Mexican 

The First Agricultural Depression (890 A.D.) 

Penkwonwi, the Little Dried Up One, had the sad 
misfortune to experience the first great agricultural 
depression in Lenape history. There was a Great 
Drought all over the country, no rain, corn and other 
crops drying up, and villages starving — for by now the 


Lenape had become permanent settlers as much as 
their Siouan teachers. 

This catastrophe forced the King to great exertions 
in moving the suffering back toward water and game. 
He found such a place where St. Paul and Minneapolis 
now stand, "The place of Caves" chief of which was 
the Wakon Tebee, Holy House or burial cave of ancient 
Siouan chieftains. There was also good corn land 
there and the seat of government in Snakeland was 
doubtless established there. (See Appendix Note 7). 

Wenkwochella, "The Fatigued" was next, indicating 
that his generation experienced the aftermath of this 
agricultural depression for a considerable time and that 
the King himself must have labored incessantly with 
counsellors, to restore the faith of the Lenape in the 
new values acquired by them from his predecessors. 
There was danger the whole nation might once more 
revert to the nomad life of their ancestors, which meant 
a greater likelihood of war. 

This was during the golden age of the Arabs in 

"The Stiff One," who followed, as the name indicates, 
found the task so increasingly difficult that he was forced 
to be a strict disciplinarian, which is never a popular 
thing for a ruler to be. 

Kwitikwond, "The Reprover" was even a worse 
martinet and so much disliked by the younger genera- 
tion that many secret bands of adventurers left the land 
altogether to seek fame and fortune independently 
elsewhere. This was most alarming to their elders 
who found the manpower of the nation dwindling and 
were forced to consider the effect on their subjugated 
neighbors, the recalcitrants within the League and the 
ancient foe, the Siouan League on the Missouri. 


No great statesmanship was required to see, that 
with a dwindling manpower, due to the strict discipline 
of the Reprover, however necessary or just, the Sioux 
would not be human if they did not attempt to regain 
their old lands. 

The older heads therefore, probably deposed "The 
Reprover" or else acted speedily when his term of office 
would ordinarily expire, and elected the greatest 
humanitarian of the nation as most likely to please 
every one and stop the exodus of the young braves. 

Kwitikwond, the Reprover, held power while the 
Icelanders, now 50,000 strong, were establishing their 
first parliament. 

Makaholend, The Loving One, was chosen suc- 
cessor to Kwitikwond "The Reprover" and was the 
immediate predecessor to the first and greatest Taman- 
end. His election meant an entire change of policy for 
the government of the League and also, that the respect 
in which his person was held was counted upon by the 
Grand Councilors to offset the bad impression left by 

The Loving One could scarcely have been other than 
the chief priest of the Midewiwan himself — the one 
man of the nation who had more to do and say about 
the laws of the Great Spirit and the manitos of each 
and every aspirant to initiation, than any other. It is 
related that he was a great king because all people loved 
him and under his wise guidance the villages and tribes 
did draw closer together for the common welfare. 

He removed the seat of government to Wisawana 
where it had apparently been established once before 
since this removal was said to be "again" at this great 
corn country. 

Wisawana, as I understand it, was the Yellow River 


Valley of Northeastern Iowa, a place known to every 
nation in the Mississippi Valley, and doubtless beyond, 
as sacred to all peoples who foregathered there for 
trade and the consequent festivals — a sort of inter- 
national Fairground. (See Appendix Note 8). 

And I think the story clearly indicates that The Holy 
One was the teacher, friend and guide of the man who 
became Tamanend the first, the teacher specially pre- 
paring this man to finish his work of peace and universal 
conciliation. Athelstane was defeating the Danes and 
Scots in England about the time The Holy One 

Thus it will be observed that the Lenape League 
turned to religion, as many another has done, in its 
extremity. But there w T as this difference between the 
European nations and those of the Red Men — the 
latter never quarrelled over their religion whatever 
else they quarreled over. There was no single claimant 
to supreme power. Every nation developed its own 
version of teachings that were regarded by all as 
directly descended from the Great Spirit — so great was 
its antiquity. 

Because of this universality, the Priests House or 
Holy Lodge became the greatest force for peace in 
aboriginal America. The Loving One would naturally 
have thrown into his efforts all the strength and power 
of his sacred office. This gave him international rights 
not possessed by ordinary Kings. (See Appendix Note 

This then was the background against which the first 
Tamanend achieved a reputation that persisted for a 
thousand years. 

Tamanend at Wisawana 

Otho had not yet been crowned Emperor of the Holy 
Roman Empire at Rome when the first Tamanend 
arose at Wisawana, 

He was elected King of the Great Lenape League to 
succeed The Holy One at the most critical time in its 
history to that date about the year 946 A.D. 

Following the Great Snake War of 133 years there 
had ensued 185 years of peace and prosperity now 
threatened by the aftermath of the first agricultural 
misfortune the nation of new agriculturists had ever 

It was too late to recall the many bands of young men 
who had emigrated to parts unknown, but not too late 
for their elders under wise leadership to rebuild the 
crumbling fortunes of the League by internal and inter- 
national policies requiring strong leadership to put into 

The Loving One had undoubtedly prepared that 
leader in his favorite disciple Tamanend. All that he 
knew of the natural laws of the Great Spirit, preserved 
within the sacred precincts of the Midewiwan, he had 
communicated to his beloved initiate. And as the Loving 
One laid down his burden, the disciple took it up, and 
bettered his work. 

Tamanend means "beaverlike" which is to say 
Affable. The Beaver was considered the most social 
of animals. Tamanend was therefore named so in 
Lenape history. And the word also describes his 
political policies. 



The scene had been set for him by the Loving One at 
Wisawana, the one spot in the Mississippi Valley where 
tribes from the remotest tributaries of the Father of 
Waters came to celebrate annual feasts and to trade, 
down to the time of the European fur traders centuries 
later. It was therefore sacred or neutral ground during 
these great international fairs. 

Tamanend was invested with supreme power equiva- 
lent to that of any modern dictator. But he never 
abused it. Moreover, he was the unanimous choice of 
his people for the office, because of his powerful and 
affable personality. He could at any time have been 
deprived of his leadership had he abused their con- 

He was the first King to receive the title Nekohatami, 
meaning literally, "He the First," because he was first 
in all things especially in the manly qualities which con- 
stitute the ideal peace king in the eyes of his followers. 
(See Appendix Note 9). 

As Heckewelder had it from the Delawares, this 
meant that he was foremost in wisdom, virtue, prudence, 
charity, affability, meekness, hospitality and every good 
and noble quality. He was an utter stranger to all that 
was bad in the Red Man's eyes. 

And all this meant that he was not only Sakim or 
King but also Grand High Priest of the Mide. In his 
own person he united the political and religious power 
of the League. He was the national Pipe Bearer in- 
vested with authority to declare war or peace. In all 
things concerning his nation he was Nekohatami. 

The fur trader Alexander Mackenzie relates that on 
his journey up Rainey River, his Indian guides pointed 
out a place to him they told him was the "Nectams" 
home, explaining that the Nectam was never allowed 


to make war but was a peace king who ruled over all 
Algonkin nations of the Lake region including those 
along the Mississippi and that he presided over their 
grand council of sachems. 

Whether they were talking of a modern Nectam 
(obviously shortened from Nekohatami) or this ancient 
hero Tamanend, Mackenzie does not say and perhaps 
never inquired. He was a fur trader rather than 

Be that as it may, Tamanend I proceeded 
through a policy of universal conciliation to repair the 
internal weakness of the League and make it externally 
powerful by entering into treaties with other nations. 

He "came as a friend to the Lenape" and all men 
were his friends says the mnemonic record of his rule. 
The inference is, that he conciliated and drew together, 
not only the various tribes and villages of the Lenape, 
but all their allies and especially the turbulent Algon- 
kins not of the Lenape division, who now and then 
threatened war such as precipitated the Great Snake 

And in international relations there were treaties 
confirmed by dances to the calumet, with all the nations 
of the Mississippi Valley contacted at Wisawana. 
These would certainly include the Sioux in the west and 
perhaps the Cherokee and Muskoki, Natchez and 
others east of the Mississippi. 

The conclusion of peace among Indian nations always 
meant mutual recognition of rights to hunt, farm or 
fish wherever they liked in the lands of the other, pro- 
vided the usual courtesies of asking permission and 
killing only for food were observed. The Great Spirit 
alone owned the land. His red children were free to 
use the fruits from it. Nations might occupy any 


particular hunting grounds they chose without objec- 
tion by another nation already in occupancy. The two 
could become allied and so help each other provide food 
and clothing for their homes. 

If there was objection, it might lead to war unless 
there were other hunting grounds as good elsewhere, 
but if peace were preserved as the Great Spirit always 
wished, that peace defined the boundaries of the na- 
tion's land. Without peace over any certain region, 
there were no definite boundaries, for there was no 
certainty of rights in the fruit of the land. 

So the Great Spirit's wishes, or War, were the only 
two alternatives possible when rival claims were set up 
to the same hunting grounds. 

Therefore Tamanend I, really rebuilt the Lenape 
League to its former prestige, for not only were all its 
people united, but they might mingle freely with all 
other nations and be sure of hospitality that would be 
given as readily as they themselves would offer it. 

This policy of universal conciliation marked the 
reigns of many succeeding kings and prolonged the era 
of peace in "Snakeland" for several more generations. 

But no other Tamanend appeared after this one for 
six centuries ! 

His immediate successors evidently followed in his 
footsteps as best they could. 

The next, Strong Buffalo, was Pipe Bearer and there 
was plenty of game but he was not given supreme power 
nor were any others after him. He flourished about 
the time The Mayan City, Chacanputan was destroyed 
by fire. Wisdom also seemed to mark the next two 
reigns of Big Owl and White Bird, whose alert minds 
functioned west of the Mississippi about the time Eric 
the Red began a three year exile in Greenland, and the 


Norseman, Bjarni Herjulfson was sighting Labrador 
and exploring those parts of the Atlantic Coast he 
called Huitramanland, Marldand and Vinland. 

No Algonkins were there to see him so far as the 
Lenape record reveals. The Iroquoian nations may 
have done so. 

Hugh Capet in France was just founding a new 
dynasty and Vladimir of Russia was being converted 
to Christianity. 

While Eric, The Red was founding the Republic of 
Greenland, Wingenund (the willing one or the mind- 
ful one) was High priest. He devoted himself to peace 
festivals and making people generally happy. This 
name appears centuries later as that of another priest, 
once companion of "Captain White Eyes" of revolu- 
tionary fame, and later a Delaware prophet — "false 
prophet" the whites called him. 

Rich Again, the King who followed was a contempo- 
rary of Lief Erickson and the ruler of the League at the 
peak of its prosperity. About that time Lief was dis- 
covering the shores of Labrador and the Queecha capi- 
tal of Tolan was being destroyed in Mexico, scattering 
its people among the tribes of Honduras and the Mayas 
of Yucatan. (1013). 

"Normalcy" had returned and with it the dangerous 
envy of surrounding nations, especially the Sioux. For 
Painted Man the next king, indicates something of this 
sort — that a few war decorations might be helpful in 
discouraging! White Fowl reigned while Thorfin 
Karlsefni with his three ships and 150 settlers stayed 
three years in America, exploring and fighting the 
natives who must have been Iroquoians for they were 
unknown to the Lenape so far as the record reveals. 
The Norse trading station, together with that of the 


Irish colony on the Atlantic coast, undoubtedly 
familiarized the eastern Indians with European savages 
— but the Lenape were still west of the Mississippi. 
Their records do not mention them. 

Second Civil War 

War did break forth and found the nation well pre- 
pared under the leadership of Tumaokan, Wolf-Wise- 

The ancestors of the Three Fires and the Assiniboine 
tribes had once more joined forces with the Sioux as 
they had done four centuries before in the Great Snake 

Tumaokan (Father Wolf) was able to handle all 
comers however and personally slew the Chieftain of 
the Stonemen or Siouan Assiniboine tribes which had 
been allies of the League. It required his successor too, 
in order to subdue the Sioux and as yet a third King to 
settle the trouble with certain northern foes while a 
fourth King found it impossible to conquer the Tawa 
rebels, ancestors of the Ottawa, Ojibway, etc. These 
were the ring leaders of the revolt within the League, 
in which they doubtless thought they had as much right 
as the Lenape to provide Kings. 

The Midewiwan seems to have always been the 
special care of theese Rebellious Algonkin peoples who 
claim they received it first, long ago on the Atlantic 
before the western migration. The Lenape however 
always claimed the right to furnish the Kings and these 
from the Turtle Tribe — though some of their names 
indicate other Lenape divisions received the honor at 
various times. 

Be that as it may, in the middle of the eleventh cen- 


tury, the continuance of this civil war inherited from his 
predecessor by King Opekasit, led to one of the most 
remarkable episodes of ancient history — the "separa- 
tion at Fish River." 

The second rebellion and Siouan war had lasted some- 
thing less than 45 years, when Opekasit made a decision 
that would have done honor to a far more civilized 
monarch and certainly entitled him to a place in the 
Tamanend legend as one of its greates idealists. 

During this war, Europeans were coming to America 
in the persons of Lief Erickson and his followers and 
Bjarney Asbrandon's Irish colony, but as the Lenape 
were still west of the Mississippi these events meant 
nothing to them. Nor did events across the Atlantic, 
such as the Moslem invasion of India; the subjugation 
of England by the Danes; the addition of Bulgaria to 
the Byzantine Empire; crowning of King Macbeth of 
Shakespearean fame in Scotland; establishment of the 
College of Cardinals at Rome ;William the Conqueror's 
capture of all England; and the fights between Pope 
Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in which they 
"deposed" each other. 

Among the peoples of greater culture far south of 
the Lenape League, during the period of this civil war, 
the Nahuas, a Toltec race, were abandoning Mexico 
and the whole Toltec kingdom collapsed from civil war. 
Yet nothing in all European or American history can 
compare in human values, with the action of the Lenape 
King described in the next chapter, one that Europe of 
that day could not have comprehended any more than 
it can comprehend in this age the spirit of Tamanend 
that prompted it, and continues to prompt Americans 
to ideals of the highest order. 


Opekasit at Fish River 

Opekasit was elected Grand Sachem of the Great 
Lenape League about the year 1075 while Europe was 
ruled by the Emperor Otho and so torn with wars that 
the crusades were soon to become an outlet for the 
civilized Christian nations to vent their piety on the 
heathen of the Holy Land. 

This Grand Sachem was so greatly affected by the 
horrors of civil war that he likened it to a quarrel be- 
tween two beloved sons and voluntarily proposed a 
division of the League between them. He would him- 
self lead the Lenape faction eastward in search of new 
lands while the Tawa faction would be left in possession 
of the ancient home. (See Appendix Note 10). 

His decision was for centuries embalmed in legend 
concerning a great King of the Delawares in the far 
west who had two sons between whom he divided his 
Kingdom one of whom attacked the other. The one 
attacked, horrified at fratricidal strife, led his followers 
east rather than engage in warfare with a brother. 

Opekasit, (whose name is translated Oppossumlike 1) 
effected this peaceful settlement of the civil war at a 
place called Namaes Sipu or Fish River, possibly on the 
modern Greenleaf River of Minnesota. Its ancient 
name was Anibikanzibi or Fish Spawn river, afterward 
changed to the modern Ashibagisibi or Greenleaf. 

If not here, then the Grand Council of the League 



which ironed out the troubles of this peaceful King by 
adopting his proposal, must have met at Nemakan in 
the Rainey River region which seems to answer even 
better than the first named location to the "Fish River" 
of the record. (See Appendix Note 11). 

Both of these places were sacred to the arts of peace, 
because they were locations of Midewiwan establish- 
ments and the natural meeting place for brothers who 
were to dance to the Calumet and smoke the pipe of 
peace after a prolonged and bloody struggle. 

Perhaps the name "Oppossum Like" borne by this 
King, corresponds to the modern slang "Foolish Like a 
Fox," for in effecting this settlement between the rival 
factions of his League, Opekasit still remained King! 
But that this was a striking illustration of the Taman- 
end ideal there can be no doubt. It conciliated all the 
factions within the League, kept it united, though 
divided into Western and Eastern Divisions, and left 
the Western Division to guard the national seat of 
power on Rainy River against all western foes. 

Opekasit himself, with the Lenape tribes and their 
allies the Talamatan, (known to modern history as 
Wyandottes or Hurons and to themselves as Wendats) 
set forth after this separation, to settle on new hunting 
grounds they might find east of the Western division's 
domain. They could do so only east of the Mississippi 
River. The King did not live to see the end of the 
journey. But he set out stoutly and leisurely in a 
southeasterly direction, evidently determined to proceed 
cautiously and first learn all that could be learned of 
those eastern lands where he hoped to colonize his 
people. The Lenape were on a magnificent venture and 
called the exultant westerners to whom they were 


leaving their hearts desire, the ancient homes, "lazy 
ones'' because they stayed behind. 

Their general goal seems to have been first of all the 
Wisawana country in northeastern Iowa. Here or 
elsewhere they tarried awhile, for Opekasit's successor 
was called Cabin Man, indicating there were villages 
to be built and perhaps farming as well as hunting to be 
done, before the tribes could all be gathered together 
and provided with food for the journey into the un- 

The Talaga, (Cherokee) were known to be in pos- 
session of the eastern lands into which the vast army 
was to march in hope of peacefully settling on its rich 
soil. But Cabin Man and his successor Strong Friend 
both believed in preparedness first. This venture might 
not prove entirely peaceful ! (See Appendix Note 14) . 

Their objective was far more peaceful in intention 
however than that of the Crusaders of Europe who 
launched their first offensive against the Saracens about 
the year Strong Friend sent ambassadors to the Talega 
King, asking that the Lenape be allowed to settle peace- 
fully on Talega soil, a request which was refused. 

Strong Friend then asked that his people be allowed 
to pass over the Mississippi and through the Talega 
lands further eastward where they would seek other 
hunting grounds. To this the Talega consented, the 
legends declare. 

JVar With the Mound Builders 

But when the advance guard of the Lenape did cross, 
and the Talega saw what an immense horde they might 
expect, they grew alarmed, attacked the first comers, 


slew many of them, and the Lenape in a fury declared 
war. (See Appendix Note 16). 

During this war the first and second crusades were 
fought by Europeans, Frederick Barbarossa became 
Emperor of Germany and the Plantaganet dynasty was 
founded in England while France and England were 
both ruled by Henry II of Argon. 

The Talega were as unfamiliar to the Lenape, as the 
Lenape to the Talega, for events proved that each 
nation represented powerful confederacies or leagues 
that could have more readily settled their differences 
through the Calumet or peace than by war. 

Talega Land was the whole upper Ohio Valley and 
occupied for unknown ages by races which our pioneer 
forefathers loosely called "Moundbuilders" and about 
whom volumes of speculation have been written. (See 
Appendix Note 12). 

The earlier of these races were Siouan, living chiefly 
in the lowlands south of the Ohio and occupying at 
least the western portion of the Upper Ohio from the 
juncture of the Ohio with the Mississippi eastward to 
perhaps the Falls of the Ohio. They were the premier 
"Moundbuilders" because their mounds were not only 
fortifications and burial or dwelling sites, but the only 
ones among which were found symbolic mounds doubt- 
less related to the mysteries or religious rites as prac- 
ticed in their version of the universal priests house. 

In the Lenape record they are called Allegewi and 
we meet with them later in historical times as the 
Akensis, Catawba, Ofo, Osage, Omaha, Kapahaw, 
Missouri, Winnebago, and other Siouans of west and 
south — quite distinct from the original western Sioux 
known as Dakotas. 

The Talegas themselves, also moundbuilders as were 


most southern Indians, were the Cherokees or as their 
own name has it, the Tsalike — Snake Like Ones, refer- 
ring to both physical and mental qualities perhaps ! 
They were the dominant people of the Upper Ohio 
Valley at this time, as the more ancient and cultured 
Siouans had long since lost much of their agricultural 
civilization with the coming of the Buffalo. The two 
nations were now leagued together under a Talega 
King whose rule extended from the Mississippi to the 
western boundaries of Pennsylvania and New York. 

When war was declared between the Lenape and 
Talega, the former were in all probability somewhere 
near the mouth of the Missouri river while the Tala- 
matan allies were camped further north. They were 
sent for at once and the invasion of Talega actually 
begun under the leadership of the King Kinnepend, 
The Sharp One, at the beginning of the twelfth century. 

Kinnepend was successor to Strong Friend, whose 
peaceful overtures to the Talega had been refused. He 
was made Pipe Bearer to carry hostilities over the river 
where fortified towns were encountered that proved too 
strong for even his successor to carry. This style of 
warfare seems to have been new to the Lenape. (See 
Appendix Note 17). 

More than twenty years elapsed before King 
Tenchekentit the firebuilder, found a way to carry these 
forts by storm and fire. After him the whole land was 
laid desolate by the Breaker-in-Pieces, and, according 
to the Lenape historians, the Talega were all driven 
South. (See Appendix Note 18). 

But not even when official peace was recorded, had 
the Lenape any real comprehension of the extent of 
their new conquest for it was more than two centuries 
before another King sent back word from Pennsylvania 


that he had at last discovered a land that was not 
Talega ! 

The Cherokee or Talega proper, may have retired to 
their lands South of the Ohio but they unquestionably 
came back again and again to bar the way to the east 
for the Lenape. (See Appendix Note 19). 

The Talegas who were driven from the Upper Ohio, 
never to return, were Siouan moundbuilders, some of 
whom fled South across the Ohio to find refuge with 
their allies while the great body of them escaped across 
the Mississippi and scattered north or south or up the 
Missouri. (See Appendix Note 25). 

As for the victors, who supposed that they had 
finished the war, the Lenape undertook to settle down 
on all lands from which the enemy had been driven, 
south of the Great Lakes and send their Talamatan 
allies back north of the Lakes from whence they origin- 
ally came ! 

Most interpretations of the old legends concerning 
this war between the "Red Indians and the White 
Indians" as the Algonkins termed it, hold to the view 
that the Lenape gave the Talmatans their choice of 
lands and they took the northern half bordering on the 
Great Lakes, while the Lenape took the southern half, 
bordering on the Ohio River. The mnemonic record 
of the Walam Olum, however, makes it clear this was 
not the case. (See Appendix Notes 20 and 31). 

The facts seem to be that as the legends relate, the 
Lanape considered the Talamatans "lazy" in this war 
and reproached them with being poor allies. They 
gave the Talamatans nothing they did not have before. 

This soon provoked conspiracies against the League 
and then open warfare, in which the Talamatans were 
soundly beaten and the ancient treaties between them 


and the Lenape broken. This war with the Talamatan, 
though brief, had consequences reaching far into the 

It was waged approximately at the time Saladin con- 
quered Egypt and the Scots under William the Lion 
acknowledged the soveranty of Henry II of England. 

There was peace for more than a century and a half 
after this, during which the new land of promise was 
thickly settled by people from both Western and East- 
ern divisions of the league. Villages thickly dotted the 
land and much corn and fruit were grown. 

King Tamaganend, Pipe Bearer, made his head- 
quarters on the White River, Indiana probably near 
where Indianapolis now stands, about the end of the 
twelfth century. In Europe the Guelphs and Ghibel- 
lines were at war and Richard the Lionhearted together 
with Frederick Barbarossa were crusading while 
Saladin conquered Jerusalem. 

Lekhihitin, the Recorder, devoted himself to bringing 
the Walum Olum records up to date there. Three more 
crusades had been fought over the holy land and the 
Seventh Crusade was in progress. In this less than half 
century of peace, since Tamaganend, Europe saw the 
first College of Inquisition established to control 
heritics; Genghis Kahn invaded China, established the 
Mongol Empire from India to the Caspian Sea and 
died on the eve of European conquest; the Albigenses, 
a rationalistic sect, were massacred at Beziers for con- 
science sake; St. Francis of Assisi founded the Fran- 
ciscan Order of monks; thousands of little children 
were permitted to throw away their lives in the craze 
known as the Children's Crusade; King John of Eng- 
land was forced by his Barons to sign the Magna 


Peace and prosperity were so abundant that history 
began to repeat itself when Little Cloud reigned toward 
the last quarter of the thirteenth century — the "little 
cloud" being the departure of various bands of adven- 
turous spirits from the parent stem. 

The Nanticokes and Shawnees were among the 
earliest of these emigrants, the former eventually 
establishing their own kingdom in Maryland, and the 
latter extending their path (The Warriors' Path) from 
Scioto river through the southern states into Georgia, 
the Carolinas and even Florida. The Delaware them- 
selves did not leave until nearly a century later. 

In the 35 or 40 years between The Recorder and this 
"Little Cloud" on the horizon of an otherwise peace- 
ful life for the Lenape, the Mongols in Europe had 
conquered Russia, the Poles, the Hungarians, the 
Silesians, and Asia Minor; the Eighth and Ninth Cru- 
sades ended in the death of St. Louis and Louis IX who 
engineered them ; the Mamelukes, former Tartar slaves, 
ruled Egypt; the Latin Empire of the East was over- 
thrown; Henry III of England had at last given the 
common people representation in parliament in the 
House of Commons; Roger Bacon wrote his Magnum 
Opus which was condemned as heretical; Dante, the 
Italian poet was born and the Hapsburg dynasty was 
founded by the Emperor Rudolph of Germany. 

This latter event coincides with the departure of the 
Naticokes and Shawnees from the parent stem of the 

Kublai Kahn founded the Yuen dynasty during Little 
Cloud's reign in America; Cambridge University was 
founded in England; Robert Bruce the first, warred for 
the Scottish crown with John Balliol and the Christian 
power in the Holy Land came to an end. 


King Kitchitamak, Big Beaver, moved the royal seat 
to Wapahoning or White Salt Lick Ohio after this. 

Onowutok, The Seer, undertook a survey of the 
League apparently extending his tour to cover not only 
the villages east but also those west of the Mississippi, 
visiting them in person and strengthening old bonds 
wherever he could. As his name implies, he was a 
peace king and a holy one, probably preaching the good 
life as enthusiastically as did Tecumseh's brother the 
Prophet, in the nineteenth century. 

The Seer flourished and surveyed his Kingdom just 
as the Renaissance began in Europe. Duns Scotus the 
Subtle Doctor was a professor at Oxford during the 
Seer's peaceful progress across the Upper Ohio Valley. 
The Crown of Hungary was made elective; Scotland 
was conquered by England who put the hero Wallace 
to death while King Robert Bruce fell at Bannockburn. 

The successor of The Seer reigned peacefully while 
DeMolay the grand master of the Knights Templar was 
burned at the stake in Europe. 

Third Civil War 

Another King known as North Walker, continued 
the survey of League affairs by investigating the Cana- 
dian or Western Division where he must have uncovered 
delinquencies of a very serious nature, as a third rebel- 
lion in connection with war with the western Sioux had 
to be put down before succeeding Kings could continue 
their peaceful exploration's up rivers and into the Alle- 
gheney mountains. 

This brief war occurred about the time England was 
forced to recognize Scotch Independence and in the 
succeeding 40 odd years of peace in America, the Stuart 


dynasty was founded in Scotland. Also the English 
Edward III was fighting France with the help of Ger- 
many, in an effort to restore the Plantagenet prestige; 
Chaucer was born; the Battle of Crecy proved that 
bowmen were superior fighters to armored knights; the 
Black Death ravaged Europe; Rienzi, the last of the 
tribunes died in Rome which started a 17-year war with 
the Venetians, Byzantines and Catalans; the Black 
Prince defeated the French King; the Ming dynasty was 
founded in China; Timour Lane began his Asiatic con- 

It was one of the explorer kings, after this western 
rebellion, who sent back word to the Ohio Valley that 
he had found a fine new land without "snakes" in it, 
east of Talega. The new land free of enemies or at 
least of Talega, was the Susquehanna Valley in Penn- 
sylvania, and this King was therefore given the name 
of East Villager. (1366). 

East Villager, as we know, had already been pre- 
ceeded by the Shawnee and Nanticoke, while the Dela- 
ware tribes began pushing toward the Atlantic in the 
reign of his predecessor and were probably even then 
with him on the Susquehanna headwaters. 

According to their legends, they arrived on the Dela- 
ware River in the year 1397 after "wandering" for 
forty years. The country we know as Pennsylvania, 
received the name of Winikaking or Sassafras Land, 
because of the river banks covered with Sassafras. 

The Delaware were building their little nation on the 
Atlantic while the English parliament was burning 
heretics and Queen Margaret united Norway, Sweden 
and Denmark in one Kingdom; China was completing 
the Yu-Ho canal. 

The League King now alternated between head- 


quarters on the southern banks of the Susquehanna and 
those established in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. 
The long trek was over and the Lenape were once more 
on the Sun Salt Sea of their ancestors where they made 
wampum and settled down to build some fifteen minor 
kingdoms along the coast from Maine to Florida. 

Last of the racial stocks to break from the parent 
stem, so far as the record shows, were the Wabanaki 
and Mohegans, during the first quarter of the fifteenth 

Europe at about this time was founding the Univer- 
sity of Salamanca in Spain; burning John Huss at the 
stake ; discovering the Madiera Isles. Joan of Arc was 
preparing for her career, which a few years later was 
also to end by burning at the stake — not at all an ex- 
clusive Indian custom. 

Then began the gradual weakening of the Eastern 
Division of the League which was to produce the second 

Like a mighty tidal wave, the Lenape League had 
swept all obstacles before it until it reached the Atlantic 
shores, when it began to dash itself peacefully into 
fragments, that new tribes, confederacies and leagues 
might be formed under ambitious leaders. 

Inevitable conflict with the Five Nations League of 
New York, became the first serious bar to the rule of 
the Lenape Kings over all the Atlantic seaboard almost 
to Florida. These Iroquois, called Mengwae by the 
Lenape and "Mingoes" by the later Europeans, were of 
the same racial stock as the Talamatans and had doubt- 
less been a dissatisfied witness of the war with Talega in 
which their Talamatan kinsmen aided the Lenape 
against their other kinsmen the Cherokee. 

The Five Nations were naturally quarrelsome with 


each other and with other Iroquoian tribes around them, 
such as the Eries, Andastes, Wendats, Susquehannocks. 
But now they were entirely surrounded by the Algon- 
kins, cut off from the Atlantic coast and while secure in 
their natural strongholds in New York, were in no 
mood to trust to the peaceful intentions of the Algon- 
kin nations. 

Whoever the agressor, war with the Mengwae began 
early in the fifteenth century. It is recorded that King 
Wulitpallat, Good Fighter, made both the Mengwae 
and the Eries "tremble." He "fought against the 
North," by which we may conclude the trouble was not 
started by him in his peaceful occupation of the south- 
ern banks of the Susquehanna. 

Nor does it appear that he knew or cared anything 
about the quarrels between the Five Nations and such 
other Iroquoian tribes as the Eries. 

It was this war that the Second Tamanend stopped. 

It was being waged about the period that Guttenburg 
invented the first printing press and the Portuguese 
began to import slaves from Africa. 

Good Fighter was the last of three Kings immediately 
preceding Tamanend II. He had been troubled with 
forebodings of the inevitable conflict. At the very peak 
of prosperity and the arrival of the main body on the 
Atlantic coast, marked in history by King "Becoming 
Fat," the Iroquois must have given evidence of prepara- 
tions to resist these invaders of the east. 

The names of these three kings tell the story con- 
cisely. They were, Red Arrow, Painted man and Good 
Fighter. The Red Arrow is a war arrow. Painting 
means preparation for war. 

Makiawip or Red Arrow, was elected King about 
1410; Painted Man 1424; and Good Fighter 1438. 

Tamanend II 

Iroquois legend serves to fix exactly the year that 
the second Tamanend arose, providing our independent 
chronology based on Algonkin references is even 
approximately correct. 

There was an eclipse of the sun in the year 1451 that 
so frightened the superstitious Iroquoian nations that 
they abandoned all thoughts of war, including a threat- 
ened civil war. Wise leaders of the Senecas, aided 
doubtless by equally wise and unsuperstitious leaders 
from the other nations involved, took advantage of this 
natural phenomenon to securely bind their followers to 
terms of peace that were hazily remembered as late as 
the American Revolution. (See Apoendix Note 21). 

Gyantwahchi, the Seneca chief, known by the name 
of Cornplanter to the Americans, told his white friends 
about this eclipse just after the Revolution and the 
advantage taken of it by the wise Sagonyuthna to 
effectually reorganize the Five Nations. Cornplanter 
seemed to confuse this event with the established of the 
Long House by Hiawatha however, so that utter reli- 
ance cannot be placed on his story. 

That the eclipse occurred however, astronomy has 

So closely does the date coincide with the chronology 
made possible for the Walum Olum by its two refer- 
ences to the coming of whites from over the Atlantic 



Ocean, (and a few secondary aids from Lenape 
legend) that it seems highly improbable that the second 
Tamanend could have arisen at any other time than 
the year of this eclipse. 

We need not enter into argument over reasons for 
assuming this to have been the date, as the matter is of 
little consequence, save that it may furnish the most 
powerful incentive for another Tamanend to appear on 
the scene. Indeed a King of such acumen as a Taman- 
end, could not have failed to take advantage of a total 
eclipse of the sun, to further the ends of peace with more 
superstitious people than himself! 

So, we may assume, that while the War of the Roses 
raged in England; the Renaissance of the Arts was 
beginning in Europe, and the capture of Constantinople 
by the Turks was ending the Eastern Empire of Chris- 
tendom, equally important events were forward in 

Tamanend II reigned from 1451 to 1453 and not 
only succeeded in ending the war with the Mengwae but 
in conciliating all nations with which the Lenape had 
relations and in bringing the clashing elements of his 
own league together. 

He did this in North America while more civilized 
nations in central and South America were still involved 
in bloody wars. Mayapan was overthrown 1460; 
Peruha was conquered by the Inca Tupak Yupanki the 
same year. 

"All made peace, all were friends and the houses of 
all were united by this great one," says the mnemonic 
record the Walum Olum. Two verses that follow, un- 
fortunately omitted in the original transcript of this 
ancient tally, might have thrown additional light upon 
his deeds. 


But this is enough to indicate what actually took 
place when the contemporaneous facts are known. 

Treaties of peace were entered into with the 
Cherokee and their allies throughout the ancient Talega 
Land and the new land of Sassafras; the Mengwae; 
the Eries, and the Sioux. Western and Eastern Divi- 
sions were again harmonized; the ancient Talamatan 
allies were conciliated and the minor leagues into which 
the Great League power had been siphoned off, were 
cemented together under leadership of Tamanend. 

To his successors, this Tamanend left a rejuvenated 
League of Nations at peace with each other and with 
similar Leagues of Nations occupying all the lands east 
of the Rocky Mountains and north of Texas. All 
water roads were open, so that any Red men who chose 
could travel by boat with short portages from any part 
of the land to another. 

A New Englander in his canoe could paddle to the 
mouth of the Mississippi or the furthest western reaches 
of the Missouri without molestation. The Calumet 
was his passport. Curiously enough, white historians 
seem generally to have supposed there was little com- 
munication between the natives of widely separated 
regions of the continent. 

Yet both legend and occasional information gathered 
by ethnologists, missionaries or pioneers, attest the con- 
trary. An early missionary tells of meeting in China, 
an Indian woman slave he once knew in America. 
(See Appendix Note 22). Wampum belts with infor- 
mation certainly apprized northern Indians of the first 
arrival and atrocities of Spaniards. Three Algonkin 
tribes on the Pacific coast, are probably descendants of 
warriors from the Great Snake War or else those who 
''secretly" abandoned the League during the unhappy 


reign of the "Reprover," in the long peace that followed 


The deeds of this second Tamanend, together with 

those of the first, were now to be sung in all festivals 
where Algonkins foregathered. The accumulation of 
tradition that clustered around them, was to interest 
the coming European settlers in future centuries as 
something so peculiarly American, they wished to emu- 
late Tamanend in their thoughts if not their deeds. It 
seemed to be one sure way to conciliate the savages. 

And these whites were not long in coming. 

When they arrived, they found the Indians approxi- 
mately where the boundaries of Tamanends treaties 
must have left them in the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. These boundaries were not fixed by surveyors but 
depended upon conditions of peace and amity within 
areas determined by occupancy — usually landmarked by 
rivers of some importance. 

The Indian names of hundreds of such landmarks, 
together with the ancient titles of their holy places, 
fair grounds, villages and other meeting places, mostly 
retained by the white man to the present time, confirm 
and make clear the details of the supposed prehistoric 
life in America, very much as here outlined. 

When this history is better known, a great deal of 
nonsense concerning the savagery of these Stone Age 
Americans must be abandoned. It may even become 
a question whether or not the European custom of burn- 
ing people at the stake was ever practiced by the 
Aboriginals until the Spaniards introduced it! 

Leagues Under the Mide Cross 

The cross, that the first missionaries from Europe 
believed evidence of previous attempts to Christianize 


the natives — a little more successful than burning at the 
stake — as we know now was their own conception of a 
symbol of law handed down by the Great Spirit to their 

It was the cross of the Mide and marked the pos- 
sessor as at least knowing the Tamanend ideals of 
liberty of thought and action. Not to believe in them 
was to align one with Bad Manito! (See Appendix 
Note 24). 

As we may roughly conceive them to have been at the 
time of the second Tamanend, the countries of the seven 
important native Leagues of Nations east of the Rocky 
Mountains were as follows: 

1. Lenape League, north of a line to the Rockies 
from or slightly below the mouth of the Missouri River 
to the Churchill river in Canada, (exclusive of the 
Missouri River system itself) constituting the Western 
Division of the League, with its capitol on Rainey River. 
Thence eastward, embracing the Upper Ohio Valley, 
and Pennsylvania south of the Susquehanna river and 
southward coastal states between the Atlantic Ocean 
and the Allegheney Mountains to or beyond the 
Savannah river, constituting the Eastern Division of 
the League. 

2. Nadowe-is-iw League or Dakotah federation of 
Siouans, occupying the entire Missouri River system 
save at such points as the Algonkins may have driven 
them from the head waters of some tributaries and 
from the mouth of the river itself. 

3. Various nations of the Allegewi or Tallagewi 
who formerly occupied the Ohio Valley but were ejected 
by the Lenape in the Tallega War to find asylum chiefly 
in the west in Arkansas, and elsewhere below the Lenape 
near their former allies; on the Missouri among kins- 


men, the western Sioux, who do not seem ever to have 
liked them very well; or, like the Winnebagoes, among 
their former enemies. How closely these Siouans were 
knit together in the so called Deghiha Confederacy is 
hard to determine. 

4. The Iroquois League of Five Nations of New 
York, from the Mohawk River to the Great Lakes, 
surrounded on all sides by the Lenape with some 
neutral tribes of Hurons in Canada and on the west 
and buffer enemy tribes of Iroquoians between them 
and the Lenape on the south and southwest. 

5. The Talega or Cherokee League, embracing 
some Siouan allies such as the Catawba, west of the 
Allegheney Mountains, in Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, 
Tennessee and the Carolinas and adjoining the Chicka- 
saw nation (Muskoki) on the west and southwest. 
Their capitol was Kuttawa in Georgia. 

6. The Coweta or Muskoki League (to figure in 
later centuries as the Creek Confederacy) from Florida, 
South of the Cherokee, on the Savannah and west of 
them to the Mississippi northward into Tennessee, thus 
controlling the lower Mississippi River. Their chief 
capitol at this time was probably Coweta in Mississippi, 
though scarcely of more importance than Mauville in 
Alabama, destroyed by De Soto. Allied with or else 
embraced within this League were the Natchez, a people 
from Mexico originally. (See Appendix Note 30). 

7. Wendat League, (modern Wyandotte or 
"Huron") north of the St. Lawrence River and on the 
Great Lakes to west of the Five Nations. Their 
ancient capitol was Hochelega near where Montreal 
now stands. 

The three immediate successors of Tamanend II 
carried out the Tamanend policies of universal concilia- 


tion more by their observance of the status quo than by 
active prosecution of the ideals. 

Kitchitamak, Big Beaver, was content to "tarry in 
Sassafras Land" which is to say to continue to uphold 
the dignity of the League as Tamanend had left it, from 
the Susquehanna River capitol. 

Wapahakey, White Body on the contrary preferred 
the delights of the Pennsylvania and New Jersey shores 
while receiving ambassadors and dispensing the royal 
wisdom concerning the advantages of peace. He was 
a contemporary of Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, 
whose marriage joined Castile and Leon to Aragon, 
prepared the way for the expulsion of the Moors which 
the Queen celebrated by financing the expedition of 
Columbus to this continent. 

Unfortunately White Body was entirely unaware of 
these other whites soon to disturb the serenity of 
America, or he would doubtless have bestirred himself 
more than he did to keep alive the Tamanend ideals 
among all nations on the continent. Nor did he know 
that the War of Roses in England had just ended or 
that Louis XI of France succeeded after a four-year 
struggle in breaking the feudal power of his prices. 
White Body was a duly elected sovereign who would 
not have dreamed of questioning the will of his Grand 
Council had it opposed him. 

In consequence of this easy-going and trustful policy 
of the successors of Tamanend II, who w T ere enjoying 
the comforts of peace and prosperity too much to worry 
much over the future, the next King Pitinumen, who 
must have been a mere child in Tamanend's time, 
turned out to be even less of a statesman than his three 
predecessors. (1498 A. D.) 


History records him as "The Man Who Makes 

It is also recorded with laconic brevity that at this 
time whites were coming over the eastern sea. 

Poor Pitinumen was wholly unprepared to cope 
either with the whites or his own mistakes. 

Had he been more alert to affairs further west he 
might have learned that far to the south a belt of 
wampum from still further south told of strange and 
terrible whites in clothes of iron had preceeded the 
voyage of John Cabot which is mentioned in the Dela- 
ware record. 


Mistakes of Man Who Made Mistakes 

Pitinumen probably was as much in favor of the 
Tamanend ideals as any modern politician is in favor 
of the "peepul" and what they want. 

But his mistakes cost his people dearly. 

He evidently offended the Cherokees of the south, 
or their Chickasaw allies, or both, in some manner, 
thus laying the foundations for a good sized war which 
was to simmer and boil, until it had broken the power 
of the League's eastern division completely and threat- 
ened the supremacy of the western division even west of 
the Mississippi. 

Pitinumen did not have to fight this war, his were 
merely mistakes of diplomacy which are evidently 
blamed in the history for having caused it. 

The entry of Europeans upon the scene, together 
with their magical firesticks, which the warriors pro- 
cured as quickly as they could, likewise weighted the 
mistakes of this King to the disadvantages of his side. 
History does not blame him for what the whites did 
of course, but had his League followed the policies be- 
queathed by Tamanend a little more closely, they might 
have beaten the Iroquois to those guns! 

Tamanend believed in preparedness. 

Mistakes were made in Europe too at this time. 
Savonarola was burned at the stake because of his 
Republican ideas. 



Makelomush, Much Honored, the immediate suc- 
cessor of Pitinumen had no especial troubles to contend 

Wulakiningus, The Well Praised, the next King, 
was the one who began to reap the fruit of the mistakes 
made by King Pitinumen. He was forced into war 
with the mountain Cherokee and the Coweta, their 
allies, just about the time Martin Luther started his 
Reform movement in Europe, and during which Cortez 
was invading Mexico and giving all whites a bad reputa- 
tion with native Americans all over the continent. (1516 

This seemed to arouse the succeeding Kings to 
strenuous endeavors toward reviving the policies of 
Tamanend for the next King, White Otter, promptly 
renewed friendship with the old allies of the Lenape, 
the Talamatans, now much closer in sympathy with the 
western than with the eastern division of the League. 
He was a contemporary of the Medici, who were 
driven from Florence, Italy, about this time. 

White Horn, his successor, a contemporary of Henry 
VIII of England, and Sir Thomas Moore, who was 
beheaded by Henry, hastened to make friendly visits to 
the Talaga in order to appease their wrath, and at the 
same time inspecting his own Algonkin allies, the 
Illinois tribes, the Shawnee and the Kanawhas of West 
Virginia. These were in position to offer powerful 
defense in case of a general uprising of Talega and 
Muskoki foes. 

Nitispayat, (translated Coming as Friend) went to 
the Great Lakes to interview all his "children" there 
and it may be assumed he did so satisfactorily, for his 
successor, Cranberry Eater continued the good work of 
treaty making and conciliation in the north among the 


Tawa almost to the exclusion of affairs at home. 
Nitispayat's reign coincides with Ferdinand DeSotos 
discovery of the Mississippi River and Cranberry 
Eater's with such European pastimes as the beheading 
of Queen Mary the Catholic in England, and the burn- 
ing at the stake of the scientist-philosopher Michael 
Servitus by the Calvinists in Geneva, Switzerland. Also 
with the burning at the stake of the English reformers 
Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley, and the Peace of 
Augsburg, which ended the German war between 
Catholics and Protestants. Also with the burning at 
the stake of Archbishop Cranmer in England. 

Had Cranberry Eater been informed of these little 
affairs he would doubtless have thanked the Great 
Spirit that fights over religion was one trouble neither 
he nor any other King in America ever had to contend 

Lowaponskan, North Walker, his successor, was also 
happily ignorant of such European events during his 
reign as the Huguenot wars which sent a colony of 
Huguenots to settle on St. John's River in Florida, 
where they were massacred to a man by the Spaniards 
of St. Augustine shortly before Queen Elizabeth of 
England took Queen Mary of Scotland prisoner to 
hold for beheading some years later. 

Instead of these foreign horrors to trouble him, 
North Walker also spent his time in North with the 
Tawa (Ottawa) and Huron allies residing at the Noisy 
Place of Ganshewenik, otherwise known as Niagara 
Falls, where he could attend to both keeping the western 
division leaders in line and watch the Five Nations. 

Niagara was the Iroquois name. 

All these endeavors toward keeping the peace by a 
policy of watchful waiting, deserved a better fate than 


befell them. Apparently the Cherokees and Chickasaws 
on the southern border had been conciliated for they 
were giving no trouble. 

The only potential trouble makers were the Iroquois, 
whose every move was now under observation. 

But another King of the Delawares now followed as 
Grand Sachem, who made an even more fatal mistake 
than the lamented Pitinumen. 

This was Tashiwinso, the "Slow Gatherer," whose 
reign and deeds coincide with the making of peace 
between Catholics and Protestants in France by the 
treaty of St. Germaine and the launching of the Holy 
League against the Turks. In their humble way, the 
mistakes of Tashiwinso, were rivals in their ultimate 
effect, to the Massacre of St. Bartholomew in France, 
that cost the lives of 50,000 persons who died because 
they worshipped God, the Great Spirit, differently 
from the manner in which their murderers worshipped 
Him. (1570 A.D.) 

Tashiwinso would have been horrified at this com- 
parison, for he certainly did not approve massacre, in 
fact, thought he was escaping the possibility of one for 
his own people when he acted in their behalf and at 
their demand. 

The Penalty of Isolation 

The demand, was, that the Great League consent to 
the separate establishment of the three Delaware 
Tribes as a new Atlantic Division. There had been too 
little attention paid to the constituents back home by 
the more recent Kings following their elevation to 
office, and if there was to be war, the Delaware felt 
quite competent to look after their own defense, 


especially with the Grand Sachem who must be chosen 
from their own number, safely kept at home! 

And as remarkable as it may seem to the modern 
statesman, this is exactly what was done. The new 
Division, of three tribes, was set up on the Delaware, 
and the Grand Sachem did stay at home and abandon 
further treaties and overtures of conciliation save in his 
own immediate vicinity. 

His name of "Slow Gatherer" is significant as in- 
dicating either dilitory tactics or else the fact that his 
belated action was too late to save the Delaware from 
a most humiliating defeat by the very foe they feared 
most. His successor is known as the Man Who Fails 
because he suffered this defeat. 

Slow Gatherer succeeded in the ambition of his three 
tribes to establish a separate political organization as 
so many other offshoots of the parent stem had done, 
the very same year that the great Iroquois Chief, 
Hiawatha, reorganized the Five Nations into their 
celebrated Long House federation. 

Then the Iroquois and the Delawares clashed and 
the Delaware Grand Sachem failed to win the victory. 
The best the next King could do was to "frighten" the 
Iroquois, (according to his story). His name was, He 
Is Friendlv, and the suspicion is that he was the more 
frightened. (1573 A.D.) 

The stay at home policy for the Grand Sachems had 
cost the Delawares half their lands, with no time, if 
they had the inclination, to call upon the allies to west 
and north for rescue. It is probable that in this war, 
the Delawares were driven east of their river where they 
were hard put to it, for a time, to defend even that 

The Walam Olum record comes to an abrupt close 


after recording three more Kings, in evident confusion 
as to the nature of the catastrophe that had overcome 
their League. 

After the friendly one who "frightened" the Meng- 
wae and who was elected King about the time the Span- 
ish Armada was defeated by the English navy, King 
Wangomend, was distracted to find that the Iroquois 
and their kinsmen of the south, the Cherokees, were a 
good many years underway with their well-known cam- 
paign to reconquer the Ohio Valley. (1600 A.D.) 

The Cherokees were fighting the Shawnees on the 
Scioto, according to the first news he had of it outside 
the Delawares own petty war with the ringleaders of 
this plot to disturb the peace. 

White Crab, his successor, simply staid at home and 
so did the last King in the record, Watcher. The 
greatest event of his reign was the arrival of Europeans 
both north and south among the Algonkins along the 
coast. They were regarded as friendly beings with 
wonderful possessions and a lively interest was shown 
by the King as to just who they might be. (1607-1617 

Those to the north were the Dutch, and did not 
greatly interest the New Jersey people who had become 
accustomed to tales of the palefaced French, but the 
settlement of Jamestown, Virginia, was an event that 
now caused the Algonkins to wonder what effect these 
new and powerful whites might mean to the great war 
now raging from the Atlantic to the Wabash. 

Had the Delaware Kings been less pacific, or greater 
travellers, they would have been greater statesmen and 
better able to cope with problems now entirely beyond 
their ability to understand. 

Their separation from the Great League, by which 


they retained only the courtesy right to furnish its 
Kings and then keep them on the Jersey shore of the 
Cheasepeake Bay, had simply eliminated them from 
the stirring events of the next few generations. 


The Coming of the Whites 

John Cabot's voyage from Labrador to Florida in 
1497-8 sets one date for the chronology of the Walam 
Olum history because it is the beginning of those arrivals 
of white men "in the north" with which the Algonkins 
were familiar for more than a century before 
"Watcher" became curious about the arrivals of 
whites "in the south," almost the limit of Algonkin 

The southern arrivals marked the beginning of 
Virginia settlements at Jamestown, while the Dutch 
were setting up Communipaw and other trading sta- 
tions in Jersey and New York. 

Two or three years after Cabot, Cortoreal was in 
Newfoundland; French fishermen began to fish there 
and build their groups of huts in 1508; Verizano sailed 
up from Florida in 1524; the Faguendez expeditions to 
Nova Scotia and up the St. Lawrence occurred in 1521 ; 
about the same time De Ayllon was exploring and loot- 
ing in Georgia but not in Algonkin territory. Cartier 
was on the St. Lawrence in 1534 and thenceforth 
France established herself in Canada. 

Unlike the Spaniards, the French interested them- 
selves in winning the friendship rather than the 
supposed treasure secrets of the natives. The Spaniards 
never forgot loot and gold. The French found riches 
in fur and needed the Indian hunters to get it for them. 

Hence the French gained the "allegiance" as they 



deemed it, of the Algonkin people, who then held 
Canada and the great fur lands of the west. This sup- 
posed submission of the natives to the French King, 
whom they called "father," was looked upon by the 
Algonkin and Wendat Indians as an alliance between 
nations however. 

It was, in fact, no less a thing from the Indian view- 
point, than an offensive and defensive alliance between 
two powerful potentates, the King of France and the 
Grand Sachem. 

They were confirmed in this opinion, not only by 
their own customs and laws, but by such incidents as 
Champlain's aid to them in carrying war to the Iroquois, 
and the establishment of the white brothers chief town 
near their own capital of the Hochelaga. ( See Appendix 
Note 26). 

This red-white alliance was taken very seriously by 
all Algonkin and Huron (Wendat) nations and con- 
tinued so long as France held a foot of American 

The Dutch Gain the Iroquois 

Henry Hudson, sailing up the Mohegan or Hudson 
River in 1609, came in contact with parties of Iroquois 
deadly enemies of all Algonkins and Wendat, without 
of course realizing what side of the fight he was wanted 
on. Fortunately for his Dutch employers, he was able 
to report these Indians as very peaceably and honor- 
ably inclined and likely to make good fur traders and 
hunters. (See Appendix Note 27). 

One party he had aboard his Half Moon, he tested 
for duplicity by getting them jovially drunk. The 
Iroquois were for the first time in their lives introduced 


to the white brothers' fire water, and their reactions 
were quite satisfactory! Even in their cups they were 
hospitable, while their women "sat so modestly as any 
of our countrywomen would do in a strange place." 

So when three or four years later, Dutch colonists 
found other natives gathered on the Jersey shore, who 
fled in alarm and but feebly defended their town of 
Communipaw which was quickly converted into a white 
man's town, the Iroquois might have been thought (by 
the Dutch) justified in resenting it by war from the 
Five Nations. 

But those Jersey shore Indians were Algonkins ! 
And the Dutch settlements which soon began to dot the 
New York landscape, met with a most hospitable and 
eager reception from the Iroquois. Here indeed were 
also whites, with "wonderful things" the Indians 
wanted and as allies they could be very useful against 
the hated Algonkins and Hurons. 

So the Dutch had fast hold on the "allegiance" of 
the Iroquois and the French on the "allegiance" of the 
Algonkins and Hurons, before the English arrived and 
undertook to govern everything. 

English ships did make some exploration of the New 
England Coast at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century — but no settlements until the Virginia venture 
of Captain John Smith and his noble patron, Sir Walter 

Jamestown was settled 1607, in Algonkin territory, 
where the Powhattan confederacy was the southern- 
most of a string of petty kingdoms extending up the 
entire Atlantic Coast into Maine. What the doughty 
captain got of Indian hospitality for his Englishmen 
was obtained by virtue of his own prowess. 

On more than one occasion he was sarcastically in- 


formed that his geography and insight into native 
politics were sadly wanting. It was this same Captain 
Smith who explored and mapped the New England 
coast where the first northern English settlements were 
made. This was then being hotly contested between 
Iroquoian Mohawks and the Algonkins, whom they had 
"greatly humbled" a few years before. (See Appendix 
Note 28). 

A force of 8000 Iroquois also destroyed Hochelega, 
the Huron capital about the same time. Civil war was 
raging between two petty Algonkin kingdoms in Maine. 
The long war for the recovery of the Ohio Valley by 
Iroquoians was being directed from the capital of the 
Five Nations at Onodaga, New York, and already 
crumbling the enemy into small divisions. (See Appen- 
dix Note 29). 

Of all this the white man knew nothing and perhaps 
cared less. 

Jamestown nearly starved to death, recovered, 
bought Negro slaves from the Dutch, wives from the 
mother country, and set about working out its own 
salvation, while the Hurons formed a federation of 
their own and plotted with their allies of the Algonkin 
League how best to resist the terrible warriors of the 
Hodenosaune, Iroquois League. 

Indians were just Indians to the English. 

These natives had some useful ideas. They adopted 
them. Six white or three purple beads they would 
accept as an Englishman would accept a penny in trade. 
This was cheap and fine money — wampum they called 

Few if any of the Pilgrims would have worried much 
had they known of the sanguinary war between great 
Indian nations going on to north, south and west of 


them. They could protect themselves against all foes. 
The Frenchman, Champlain, was being asked by the 
Algonkin-Huron allies to help them make peace with 
the Iroquois, the same year Algonkins attacked James- 
town, in Virginia, and killed 347 of its people. 

Manhattan Island was turned over by Algonkins to 
the Dutch for 60 gulders in 1626, glad enough to 
relinquish so untenable a site near the Iroquois to the 
white allies of the Iroquois. Uncas formed his 
Mohegan confederacy this same year with the apparent 
purpose of attempting to revive the power of the great 
league on the Atlantic with new white allies — the 
English. What had the French been able to this far 
south of Canada? A Delaware council was called at 
Philadelphia and refused to join their enemy, the 
Iroquois, in an attack upon the English, even though 
the Iroquois had humiliated them in war and arrogantly 
demanded it of them. 

But the English were increasing in numbers, dis- 
trusted even Uncas and soon alienated this movement 
toward themselves. Some 2000 Pilgrims a year were 
coming in. This might alarm and incense the Dutch, 
but what of it? 

The Dutch were first to supply the Iroquois with 
"the wonderful things" the Red man craved most — 
fire arms. Guns of the white men soon settled the 
supremacy of Iroquois over Algonkin and Huron in 
the east. 

Between the excitement of the white man's fire-water 
and fire arms, the war of many decades began to have 
sanguinary consequences to the white man himself. 
Maryland's first settlers easily purchased an entire 
Indian (Algonkin) village whose owners gave them a 


few lessons in native domestic arts, and left for parts 
unknown. The village became St. Marys. 

Roger Williams, the Welsh preacher, seeking liberty 
of conscience he could not find among its apostles in 
Massachusetts, paid about $150 for Providence, Rhode 
Island, to Algonkins. They would have sold it much 
cheaper doubtless. 

The English helped Uncas destroy his former tribes- 
man but had no sympathy with his ambitions for re- 
stored glory to an Indian League allied with the Eng- 
lish, if they even understood what it was all about. 
English courts were conducted as in England and na- 
tives of whatever ungodly tribe had to beware how they 
offended English law. 

And so Algonkin sympathies had only France to look 
to for white alliance. 

Swedes came and settled in Delaware to the outrage 
of the Dutch who claimed that territory as they did 
Connecticut, now overflowing with Englishmen. The 
Dutch conquered the Swedes in bloodless battle and 
made known their demands that the English should get 
out as trespassers. Now both Dutch, Algonkins, Iro- 
quois and French disliked the English regardless of 
how they disliked each other. 

Surrounded by dislikes they could not understand, 
the English thereupon took a lesson from the natives 
and formed their own league! 

Nezv Englanders Copy Indian Pattern 

The L'nited Colonies of New England came into 
being 1643. Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Connecti- 
cut and New Haven colonies formed their own grand 
council, with eight commissioners to look after defence 


against Indians, and incidentally keep a watchful eye 
on New Amsterdam. Rhode Island was barred from 
the League. Roger Williams was too intimate with 
the natives and beside had queer ideas. He would have 
to look after himself and his people.' 

This League of the whites lasted 40 years. 

During that time the Dutch fought the Wappengers 
(Algonkin) while their Iroquoian allies drove the 
Ottawas away to Lake Superior, destroyed tribe after 
tribe and were nearly finished with the war by which 
the reconquered the Ohio Valley. 

Delaware passed from the Swedes to the Dutch and 
the Dutch were taken over by the English, whose 
colonies now occupied the same Atlantic coast line from 
New England to Florida, once occupied by the Algon- 
kin kingdoms, remnants of which were being battered to 
pieces in the South by the Cherokee and in the North 
and Ohio Valley by the Iroquois. 

Algonkin people were turning against each other and 
the English everywhere, still fighting the Iroquois. 
Driven back to their ancient seat of power on the Great 
Lakes and in Canada, the French alone seemed to be 
their friends. From the French they secured guns. . 

In Virginia, Bacon's rebellion cost its leader his life 
because he championed the white settlers defense 
against Indians in opposition to a royal governor who 
had other ideas. 

King Philip's (Metacomet) war against the United 
Colonies left the English as unmoved as had Uncas' 
war in English (and his own) behalf. 

English succession to Dutch lands with New Amster- 
dam now New York, gained no allegiance from either 
Iroquois or Algonkin. Englishmen pushed on into 
good hunting and farmland claimed by both French 


and Red man, caring little about the rights of the 
matter or that French explorers, pioneers and mis- 
sionaries were now conciliating and leaguing themselves 
with Mississippi tribes from lakes to mouth. 

As for the French, that was a policy . They knew 
nothing probably of the racial enmities between north 
and south. Friends where possible, with all natives, 
was the objective. 

The French and Indian wars proved their wisdom 
but never enlightened the finally victorious English. 
The year the Hurons made peace with their Iroquois 
conquerors (1684) and Philadelphia had just been 
founded, the United Colonies closed its career. 

Then began the French Indian wars in which the 
English finally secured the "allegiance" of the Iroquois, 
now masters of the East. That it was reluctantly given, 
or that the alliance which finally replaced the Dutch 
gun and rum sources with English gun and rum sources, 
never seemed to dawn upon the English as any reason 
for uneasiness. 

But they did understand something by this time, of 
the racial hatreds between their Red allies and the Red 
allies of the French. Distrusting the Iroquois, they 
could still play the French game with these "allies" 
and their incomprehensible demands and claims. 

English outposts on Hudson Bay had been established 
on much the same sort of claim the Indians seemed to 
make to their lands — come and use it and it's yours. 
An English King had royally confirmed the title, despite 
the French. When a "war party" went against the 
Hudson Bay fur camp, Englishmen laughed in its face. 
Now there was war. 

The Delaware Turtle Tribe moved back to the Ohio 
Valley the year King William's War began. French 


and Algonkins fought Iroquois and English. It was so 
in Queen Anne's War and at last in the French and 
Indian War in which Braddock suffered disastrous 
defeat. Yet the English finally won. 

Powerful warriors thought the Red man. 

But careless of all other rights but his own. 

And they never were "friends" of the English! 

Lcnape Had Reconquered Ohio Valley 

It was during the last war that the English had one 
faint qualm as to the outcome, yet they never learned 
the truth — that their allies the Iroquois had been driven 
out of the Ohio Valley, which had been reconquered by 
the Great Algonkin League, now as powerful in its 
Western Division as the former Eastern Division had 

Had they known this, their uneasiness would have 
been greater, perhaps, but they would never have called 
an English Congress in New York, as they did, to 
debate whether their Iroquoian allies might not now 
unite with the western Indians against the colonies ! 

Having successfully conquered Dutch and French 
allies of the Red man, the English became the natural, 
because sole remaining white ally that any Red people 
could hope to secure aid from against the enemy ! The 
Spanish in Florida had centuries of hatred against them. 

But how were these alliances to be maintained with 
the same white ally, against each other? It could not be 
done. The great Red ideal therefore became two-fold 
and was to determine war or peace. 

First — The Tamanend ideal of the Delawares, that 
preferred peace and concilation of all peoples, though 
not at all averse to war when other measures failed. 


Second — Union of all Indian Nations against the 
white invasion of Indian rights in land. This meant 
war against all pioneer settlements. There was now 
but one white race, the English, to deal with. 

Iroquois Reconquered Ohio Valley 

Between 1650 and 1700, our historians say that the 
Iroquois confederacy reconquered the Ohio Valley. 
Now and then they "utterly destroyed" the "last of the 
Hurons" although we find these Wendats eventually a 
subject race to their brother Iroquoians, placed in con- 
trol of the conquered lands by them and known to 
whites as Wyandottes ! There were known to be some 
Cherokee in Ohio, as late as 1710, indicating that these 
Southern Iroquoians were allies of the victor. 

It is not improbable that certain of the rebel Algon- 
kin tribes, likewise aided the Iroquois for the "Mas- 
coutins," (Ancient Muscodesh or fire people of Michi- 
gan) with whom the Ottawa-Chippewa of the Western 
Division incessantly fought, were in southern Illinois 
while the 3-Fires (Ottawa-Chippewa-Pottowatomie) 
and western Algonkins generally were clustered around 
the ancient League headquarters to the north. 

But times and manners were changing for the Red 
man, while the great struggle between the Algonkin 
League and the Iroquoian League became more and 
more a struggle between English and French. 

Instead of the white allies throwing themselves 
wholeheartedly into the attainment of Red objectives, 
they were increasingly indifferent to the Red brother, 
acting as though the Red man were but a pawn in the 
white man's game of war! And as the Reds began to 
suspect this, the fury of their leaders knew no bounds. 


For It Was Precisely This Same Attitude To- 
ward the Whites that the Various Indian 
Leagues Had from the Beginning. 

Alliances had been made for guns and white aid 
against enemies. The Red man thought he was using 
the newcomers for his own purposes and paying him 
well. The white man supposed he was doing the same 
thing with the Indian whose tendency toward 
"treachery" always needed watching. 

With English aid, the Iroquois assumed they had 
retaken ancient Talega Land for their own people. It 
would have been entirely in accord with Indian hos- 
pitality, that English pioneers be allowed to settle and 
hunt on this land, so far as the Iroquois were concerned. 
There was an Iroquoian debt to be paid the white allies. 
The Cherokees in the south were more than willing to 
do so. 

But the Colonial English never came to understand 
the niceties of Indian law and especially of their laws 
in respect to land and international relations. They 
soundly thrashed the Tuscaroras (Iroquoian) in North 
Carolina, who crept north to the parent stock and be- 
came the Sixth nation of the Iroquois Confederacy. 
Whatever the cause of Indian outbreaks, these new 
Americans were not bothering themselves, save as to 
results and dire punishment of the offenders, of what- 
ever nation. 

And so there gradually arose in Indian minds, a fear 
that all their League wars were now being fought in 
vain — that the whites were more powerful and would 
not respect the victors more than the conquered. 

And so the teachings of Tamanend were in the 
ascendant for a time. 

In the first half of the eighteenth century for example, 


the Cowetas, ancient Muskoki foes of the Lenape, 
were on friendly terms with the Delawares, descendants 
of those Lenape. Algonkin Shawnees came from south 
and west into Pennsylvania and so did Cherokee and 
they were not all engaged in fighting each other either. 
These same Shawnees had been back on the Scioto, 
ancient battle ground of the Leagues and east of the 
Muskingdom to below the Eries on the Allegheney. 

Lenape Retake Ohio Valley 

The general position of Algonkins and Iroquois and 
Hurons indicates that after 170(1 the former, rather 
than the latter, were masters in the Upper Ohio ! When 
the French warned the English from the Ohio Valley in 
their last war it was held by their Algonkin allies. 
Prisoners captured at Braddock's defeat were taken by 
the Shawnees back to their stronghold at the mouth of 
the Scioto. 

This time it was for the Iroquoians to be selling lands 
and letting the white allies build forts and make settle- 
ments. The Cherokee were among the most accommo- 
dating and civilized in the land. Observers reported 
Cherokees and "Mingoes" (Mengwae or Iroquois) as 
well as Shawnees and Delawares, seemed to be the two 
popular "alliances" of the day after Braddock's defeat ! 

These respective alliances (Iroquoian with Iroquoian 
and Algonkin with Algonkin) must have grinned over 
the pale-face discovery, had they known of it. But 
what was of importance was the friendship between 
Delaware and Coweta, ally of the Iroquois as attested 
by the explorer, Long, even before this. 

The English were now beginning to make treaties, 
doing the best they knew how, to bind the savage enemy 


by ties of white men's devising, humoring some of their 
pretentions and vaporings, but on the whole well satis- 
fied that once the majesty of the British law was 
acknowledged and signed on the dotted line, even with 
a totem mark, it would not be violated with impunity. 

Who "Owned" the Land? 

Knowing nothing of the white man's queer ideas that 
land once alienated, was vested in the grantees heirs 
and assigns forever, the Red men listened to talks, made 
some himself and then signed. From his viewpoint, he 
gave up, not titles to real estate, but natural rights to 
hunt, fish or farm in certain regions. The earth, as all 
men knew, was made by and therefore belonged to the 
Great Spirit. Who could sell old Nakomis, his grand- 

However, the English were satisfied. They had the 
signatures of the most likely Indian rebels on the Ft. 
Johnson treaty of 1757, which closed the incident as to 
the natives. Let the Indian complain "he did not under- 
stand" as much as he liked thereafter — he was bound 
by the law, the English law. 

Less than ten years thereafter, Pontiac's War should 
have enlightened them. Pontiac's white allies, the 
French, had gone down in defeat, but Pontiac, King of 
the ancient Algonkin League, was still a king. When 
Captain Rogers passed through this kingdom to take 
over one of the French forts, his personal bravery alone 
saved him. He was warned to tell his countrymen, all 
this Ohio Valley belonged to the people over whom 
Pontiac ruled. 

To avert war, a British proclamation that settlers 
were forbidden to settle- "Indian Lands" caused the 


natives to abandon the war at the peak of its success. 
Yet had the hardy pioneers understood the consequences 
of violating what the Great League of the Red men 
considered more sacred law than the British proclama- 
tion, it is doubtful if they would have paused in their 
westward march. By this time there was the most 
thorough going hatred between the races. 

All Red men were "varmints" and to be slain with- 
out mercy upon the slightest or even fancied provoca- 
tion, as they slew the whites. 

At the Fort Stanwix Treaty of 1768, in consequence 
of British unfamiliarity, not to say ignorance, respect- 
ing the Indian claims to land, there must have been many 
a grim smile indulged in by Iroquoian and Algonkin, as 
they set forth their claims to rights they were either 
selling or surrendering — it was all the same to the Red 
man. The victor could name his own terms ! 

So the Shawnees and Delawares were set down as 
"dependents" upon the Iroquois — rather ancient his- 
tory, which had been revised of late years. However, 
the Cherokees (Iroquoian) cheerfully "acknowledged" 
the claim. This strange paleface conqueror, seemed 
intent on reconquering the Ohio Valley once more from 
the Algonkin, for his ally the Iroquois confederacy. 
Pontiac was dead. Why attempt to teach Algonkin 
history to a white man? 

From position of actual defeat, the Iroquois regained 
on paper, all they had lost. They were lords of the 
Ohio Valley, (on paper) and of the South Ohio country 
west to the Big River or Tennessee, with rule acknowl- 
edged by the whites at least, over the Potomac tribes of 
Algonkins as well as those in the Ohio Valley. 

The American revolution at first was merely a quarrel 
between the 13-Fires and their own King to the Indian. 


By treaty he was bound to the British King because the 
British had conquered them. This was no "alliance" 
between the Red man and a powerful white King who 
could be useful against one's enemies. 

The British paid for the scalps they demanded and 
got. The conqueror used the conquered according to 
the savage custom which was easily understood. The 
Algonkins were "loyal" to the British King because they 
considered him strongest and the American rebels who 
were moreover bitter enemies were already occupying 
Indian hunting grounds. 

The Red League deemed it better policy to play the 
Red Coat war game — all save the Delawares. 

They alone maintained the Tamanend tradition now. 

The Tamanend Policy Helps Americans 

Their Grand Sachem, Koguethagechton or as the 
Americans called him "White-Eyes" resisted all British 
efforts to enlist the Delawares in the war, though they 
succeeded in dividing the nation. The American Con- 
gress interviewed him and the Sachem travelled west 
among his people counselling neutrality. "White Eyes" 
was head of the Turtle Tribe and therefore titular 
King of the ancient League. His chief opponent of tht 
Wolf tribe of Delawares, dared not attempt the life 
of the Grand Sachem. 

Thus the Tamanend peace ideal was instrumental 
in aiding the Americans in their struggle for freedom, 
at a time they needed it most. They were hated and 
feared by all Indians, even the Delawares, because they 
were violators of the sacred laws handed down to the 
Red man with regard to land. By this violation, they 
were depriving Indians of food, clothing and shelter. 
Only certain missionaries, such as the Quakers and 


Moravians, were making any attempt to give the Red 
men knowledge of what to do when the game was all 

It was General George Rogers Clark however, who 
opened up the Northwest for the Americans, and first 
won the admiration if not the confidence of the Indians. 
When they saw him accepted by the French, (old-time 
Algonkin allies) and then capture a British fort, they 
began to understand that this was more than a war of 
rebels against their King. ( See Appendix Note 31). 

This was the 13-Fires fighting for the ideals of 
Tamanend, or as the white brother expressed it, for 
life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness! 

Clark made his headquarters in Kentucky and it is a 
singular fact that he and his fellow Kentuckians began 
to learn from the Indians, more of their history, cus- 
toms, laws and reasons for warring against the whites, 
than any other group before them. 

These new American warriors, might be merely 
ignorant after all, but they were not hypocrites. They 
were not so liable to trick the Reds as the English they 
fought, for they did not have forked tongues. Mis- 
understand they might, but they gave frank choice be- 
tween war and peace, between force and the Tamanend 
ideal. If it was war, they but exercised the victors' 

Beginning of Our Indian Program 

The Americans began their Indian policy with a 
series of treaties: Iroquois at Ft. Stanwix, 1784; Dela- 
ware, Ottawa, Chippewa and Wyandotte at Ft. Mc- 
intosh, 1785. These promptly established relations 
with the two great Leagues whose ancient rivalries and 


wars were not allowed to color their claims to first con- 

As the fur trader, Mackenzie, wistfully told his 
fellow Britons, they would have been wiser from the 
start to treat with native races as their conquerors. 
That was one thing the Indian could understand of 
white man's law. 

Next, the Cherokees were recognized as a separate 
nation in the Hopewell Treaty of same year, dealing 
with them, the Choctaw and Chickasaw at the same 
time. Knowingly or not, the Americans were fortunate 
in linking the ancient Talega and Coweta, allies against 
the Lenape, and therefore to be counted with the 
Iroquoian forces. 

Next year, 1786, the Treaty of Great Miami was 
made with the Shawnee, whose roving yet puzzles many 
as to which side they should be counted on at any given 
time. They of course were and always will be Algon- 
kins, i.e. Lenape. 

The Treaty of Ft. Harmer, 1789, must have seemed 
to the Indians, an effort to force peace between their 
ancient leagues. This treaty dealt with the Iroquois 
in one group and the Wyandottes (ancient Talamatans) 
Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawotomies and 
Sauks in another. 

At this time it was understood the Shawnees, 
Cherokees and Creeks or Muskoki confederacy, whose 
chief wartown was Coweta, were all in friendly relation 
with each other. 

The American treaty making after this mixed council, 
came to an abrupt, though brief halt, because of war 
with the Miami Confederacy, which was nothing less 
than an uprising of the Great League again. 


Miami Confederacy Was Lenape League 
In this confederacy, our histories count the 

Wyandots (Wendats, Hurons or ancient Talamatans). 
Delawares (Heads of the Eastern Division). 
Ottawa-Chippewa-Potawatomie (Three-Fires) . 
Miami and Shawnees. 

The 3-Fires, Miamis were of the Western division 
and the Shawnees of the Eastern, in the ancient League. 
It was three years before this uprising was put down. 

In the meantime the Cherokee were guaranteed all 
lands they had not already ceded to the United States 
or the several states, by the Holston Treaty of 1791, 
which they subsequently confirmed at Philadelphia in 

Leader of the new League uprising was Michikiniqua 
or Little Turtle, a worthy successor to Pontiac. He 
defeated two armies sent against him but was defeated 
by a third, under command of General Anthony Wayne, 
"The Black Snake," respected by all Red Warriors. 
(See Appendix Note 32). 

Chickasaw and Choctaw scouts from the south acted 
with the Americans. Their friendship with the Dela- 
wares as well as their ancient feud with the Algonkin 
league, made them more amenable to the Tamanend 
ideal than to the war against the whites. 

After the war, this modern King of the Algonkin 
League was one day asked why he did not live in 
Philadelphia, which it will be recalled is the City of 
Brotherly Love, founded by the Elder Brother (Penn) 
of Tamanend III, near that Tamanend's royal seat. 

The Grand Sachem's reply was: 



"I admit that you whites live better than do we 
Red men, but I could not live with you because I am 
as a deaf and dumb man. I cannot talk your language. 
When I walk through the city streets I see every 
person in his shop employed at something. One 
makes shoes, another makes hats, a third sells cloth 
and every one lives by his labor. I say to myself, 
which of these things can I do? Not one. I can make 
a bow, or an arrow, catch fish, kill game, go to war, 
but none of these are any good here. To learn what 
is done in Philadelphia would require a long time." 

This King spoke the sentiments of his people many 
of whom today are honored citizens of the United 
States, eminent in various professions and trades. But 
the Red man had so long been regarded as an ignorant, 
lazy and ferocious savage, his words made little im- 
pression at the time. 

As to the Indians' view of real estate ownership, a 
Chippewa chieftain explained it rather more fully than 
usual with his people when talking to a white man. To 
General Wayne's inquiry, he answered: 

"Elder Brother, you ask me who were the true 
owners of the land now ceded to the United States. 

"In answer I tell you if any nations should call 
themselves the owners of it they would be guilty of 
falsehood; our claim to it is equal. Our Elder 
Brother has conquered it." 

And yet, knowing nothing of the laws handed down 
to the Indian nations by the Great Spirit, how easily 
interpreted was that answer, to mean that no Indian 
nations really ever owned it and the whites were the 


first to do so, by conquering the Indians! The Great 
Spirit alone owned it was the true meaning. 

King Tecumseh Tries Again 

One of the warriors in this war, with the Miami 
Confederacy, later to become King and lead another 
League war against the whites, in which he was slain, 
was Tecumseh. For many years he and his brother, 
The Prophet, labored to weld all the Indians of North 
and South together under his leadership. Tecumseh 
won the Muskoki sympathies no less than the Algon- 
kins. (See Appendix Note 41). 

When asked why he attempted this great reorganiza- 
tion, he answered that he did so for the same reason 
the whites had brought about a union of their colonies. 

"We Indians Have Never Objected to That 
— We Are in Our Own Land Which Has Been 
Left to Us by the Great Spirit." 

Seemingly Tecumseh was forced into war before com- 
pletely finishing his work of preparation. But he had 
with him this time as allies, those ancient foes of his 
league, some of the Allegewi, now called Winnebagoes 
— Siouan peoples. 

He was frank enough with the Americans, offering 
to be their ally in the coming war with England if they 
would acknowledge the rights in land he claimed for his 
people. Else, he told them, he would side with the 
British in Canada who had already sought an alliance. 

In the south, Alabama and Tennessee, the Creek 
Confederacy maintained the war long after the King in 
the North had fallen. Their leader was known to the 


whites as Weatherford and his opponent and conqueror 
was Andrew Jackson, later President of the United 

Having won their second war with England, the 
Americans now were able to deal with the Indians by 
treaty under which he was supposed to sell the land the 
Great Spirit owned and he enjoyed the fruits thereof- — 
or conquer him in war and treat him accordingly. 

Naturally the whites preferred buying the land, 
under the same impression their ancestors had, that the 
Indians understood very well what ownership by deed 
of transfer (a treaty) meant. 

Black Hawk's War 

In 1830 certain Sauk and Fox tribes (Algonkins) 
"sold" their lands and agreed to move west of the 
Mississippi, without consulting their chief, Black Hawk. 
They were involved in war by Black Hawk insisting 
on the Indians' rights as in all other cases. In this war 
the Siouan Winnebagoes were allies of the Sauk and 
Fox federation. 

But the western Sioux or Dakotas were not involved, 
nor was the Great Algonkin League. For the Sauk and 
Fox people were of those original Algonkins living in 
Michigan when the Great League was formed and they 
were seemingly always rebels against its authority. The 
Iroquois were also their enemies and the ancient western 
Sioux as well. These American Ishmaelities probably 
learned of the white man's numbers and powers for the 
first time under Black Hawk. Abraham Lincoln fought 
against him, as a young man. 

After his defeat, Black Hawk was shown white 


civilization and no longer wondered that his own power 
was unable to cope with it. 

"Treachery" in Florida 

Quickly following the Black Hawk war, the Creeks 
of Florida under Osceola fought valiantly for their 
lands, despite the reasoning of General Thompson, that 
as white settlers were all around them and the game 
disappearing, they had better keep to their signed agree- 
ment ceding their lands. In this war it must be ad- 
mitted the Americans were equally as "treacherous" as 
their foe. Osceola was tricked, captured and died a 
prisoner. But the Seminoles are still in the Everglades 
of Florida — those that have absorbed some of the ways 
of white men. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century, the United 
States had succeeded in quelling or pacifying virtually 
all Indians resident east of the Mississippi. Most of 
them were moved to reservations west of the Missis- 
sippi. The more civilized or pacified, still remain on 
reservations in the various states. There are still 
Cherokees in the southern mountains and Iroquois in 
New York. 

The east had become too thickly settled for the Red 
man to retain any interest in the land. The west was 
still filled with game. But it too was being constantly 
settled by men who built cities and brought the white 
man's inexorable law. 

Perhaps not one tribe in the entire west but was now 
fully determined to kill all white men in order to save 
their hunting grounds, given them by the Great Spirit. 
They objected to white hunters chiefly because they 


killed more game than they could eat. The Indian was 
never a "sportsman." 

Why South Organized Indians 

During the Civil War the South endeavored to keep 
these Southern Indians neutral or else use them as 
regular soldiers, deeming it dangerous to the white race 
generally to leave them free to choose sides and set 
whites to achieve the purposes of the Reds! General 
Albert Pike, who achieved this end, knew more of 
Indian character than perhaps any white man save 
William Penn. 

Soon after the Civil war, which the Indians of the 
west doubtless regarded as some relief to themselves, 
the Cheyennes rose under their Chief Roman Nose. 
They were Algonkins, and descendants of those Lenape 
who fought the Great Snake War westward and south- 
ward. They remembered the time they were an agri- 
cultural people and lived on the Missouri and far in the 
west, much as the Walum Olum relates. 

At Fort Ellsworth, Kansas, 1866, while settlers were 
pouring westward and railroad lines were being laid 
through his hunting grounds, Roman Nose threatened 
war if they came further. He made good the threat 
and was killed in battle. 

Further South and west the Apache Geronimo became 
a scourge. He was captured, imprisoned and died in 
peace 1909. 

The Dakotahs, ancient Nadowe-is-iw also resisted 
stoutly under Red Cloud, forced a treaty they construed 
as victory because a fort was abandoned, but were finally 
defeated and Red Cloud allowed to die in peace at the 
age of 90. 


The last serious war with Indians resulted in the 
Custer Massacre and bitter war with a line of Sioux 
chieftains who were finally thoroughly subdued. The 
west had been conquered, its game exterminated and the 
Red man left only with the choice of education or living 
on a reservation under white man's bounty. 

But the Americans no longer killed Indian "rebels" 
save in battle. Even Sitting Bull, most dangerous of 
the Sioux, lived to join a Wild West show and die while 
resisting arrest by an Indian policeman! 

Indians Only Understood Conquerors 

As conquerors, the Indian could understand the 
American. The issues of battle decide one's fate and 
the magnanimity of the victor tells the defeated warrior 
what kind of man has conquered him. The victors' 
Spirit (Manito) was the stronger — that was all. 

But it is doubtful that any "old-time" Indian can 
ever really agree with the white brothers' viewpoint on 
real estate. 

To be killed, or even tortured may be the fate of a 
warrior who loses. 

But to deprive him of food, clothing and shelter 
guaranteed by the Great Spirit to all his children, is a 
torture and a punishment of which the Indian knows 
nothing. If an enemy is allowed to live, he must be fed. 
He may even be adopted into the tribe. 

So, from the Red point of view, the white man owes 
every Indian living on a reservation, food, clothing and 
shelter. It is the white man's debt by the law of the 
Great Spirit, whose place the white man has endeavored 
to usurp with respect to land. The Indian is no beggar. 
Indeed he is rather miserable in such a situation. But 


the land and game are taken away from him, gone for- 
ever. It is the white man's debt, not his. 

Yet this strange American, without understanding 
the Great Spirit apparently, and knowing little if any- 
thing of the mysteries of the Priest House, is teaching 
the younger generation other ways of obtaining the 
necessaries of life than the old ways now gone. 

Citizenship Like Ancient "Adoption" 

He has his own rites of adoption into the 48-Fires. 
This younger generation seems to think the white man 
owes them no debt of the Great Spirit once they are 
adopted and initiated by the white man. The old war- 
riors are dying out. The young ones are becoming 
American citizens when they will. The native ways are 
giving place to agriculture, trade. 

It is a long string of centuries backward to the ancient 
life of the Stone Age. That is gone. This is an age of 
metal for the Indian as well as the white man. But the 
Stone Age mind and tradition remain with most of them. 

Only the younger generation know and prove that 
Stone Age inheritance is mentally no weaker than that 
of the Iron and Steel Age in which it finds itself. 

Those who revere the ancient traditions and sagas 
of past glory, see with surprise, that the white brother 
has absorbed something of that Great Spirit who rules 
this "Island," even though they know it not. It makes 
them closer akin to the Red Man than the two have ever 
been before. 

To the Algonkin, the ideals of Tamanend may live 
again in his own nation, once he understands the white 
man's point of view. His ancient League has now been 
enlarged to cover the entire "Back of the Turtle." 


The Great Spirit has given a new set of laws suitable 
to the changed conditions made by the whites. // the 
white man will now obey those laws, no one will starve, 
go naked or be without a wigwam. 

It is too late for the elders who remain on reserva- 
tions to once more consider themselves members of the 
Great League. But their children and grandchildren 
may do so. 


Religion and Laws of the Red Man 

Redpath, the great historian, expressed the opinion 
that the Indian was unsocial, solitary, gloomy, an 
opinion some modern wit agreed with by suggesting 
that the reason the noble Red man was so silent was 
that he knew nothing to say. 

Among other conclusions of the historian, drawn 
from pioneer tales of the Indian, were these. 

The idea of civil authority which should curb his 
passions and will and thwart his purpose, was intoler- 
able to any Indian. 

He had a passion for war; his military strategy was 
limited to surprise and "treachery." 

No general Indian Congress was known. Con- 
federations of tribes were temporary, based on ties of 
kinship or the exegencies of war. 

In matters of religion the Indian was "superstitious," 
though seldom an idolator. He worshipped and sacri- 
ficed to the Great Spirit who was everywhere present, 
ruling the elements. But this was not in temples. The 
"Medicine Man" was merely a self-constituted phy- 
sician and prophet. (See Appendix Note 39). 

Fortunately the researches of modern ethnology and 
archaeology have succeeded in modifying some of these 
conclusions or at least casting doubt upon their correct- 

After two centuries of conflict between the Stone Age 
and Modern Civilization, it would have been more 



remarkable had Redpath been able to draw any other 
conclusions than he did from the Indians themselves, 
not to mention the tales of the colonists who regarded 
them all as potential murderers. 

The Holy House Was Universal 

But the Indians did have an authority to curb their 
passions both in peace and war, and forms of govern- 
ment based upon that authority, of which few Euro- 
peans or their successors, the Americans, suspected even 
the existence, although it was constantly before their 

This was his religion, philosophy and science taught 
in secret societies universally distributed and variously 
named, but essentially identical in principle. (See Ap- 
pendix Note 34). 

Among the Lenape, as among all Algonkin peoples, 
this society was known as the Mide-Wiwan or Priests 

Their great hereditary foes, the Sioux, called it the 
Wakon-Kitchewa. (See Appendix Note 35). 

The Mide were both priests, warriors and healers. 
They were the leaders of their clans. The respect in 
which they were held made every young warrior am- 
bitious to become a Mide, as this increased his social, 
political and religious standing in every way. 

Early pioneers knew of this organization, though no 
white man was ever admitted and it is upon the informa- 
tion grudgingly furnished by its native members, 
coupled with the known customs of the various tribes, 
we must depend for what knowledge we possess of it. 
The pioneers called it "The Great Medicine Society" 
and referred to the Mides as "Medicine Men," because 


one of the things obviously taught the initiated, was the 
art of healing with herbs and appeals to the manitos or 
spirits; a sort of combination medical and mental heal- 
ing school, of which the whites ought to know a good 
deal ! They have enough healing schools of their own. 

But more than healing was taught. 

Every lodge was dedicated to The Great Spirit and 
from this Great Spirit flowed all good things, knowledge 
of herbs and incantations being merely one of them. 

Nor was the conception of this Great Spirit by the 
Red man, easily understandable to the pioneer settlers, 
nominally at least given to Christian interpretations 
that demanded concrete ideas about God as a person. 

The Great Spirit was the Master of Life, every- 
where, in everything, invisible, eternal, responsible for 
causing all life and all visible and invisible things, ruling 
over all Nature. 

The first chapter of the Walam Olum describes the 
Lenape conception of this Great Spirit. And this was 
the conception of all other holy mysteries over the 

The Master of Life created everything. Sometimes 
he was called the Breath Master, because all power 
came from him and the objective of every individual 
was to increase this power within himself so that he or 
she might become superior in it. 

Not only human beings, but rocks, animals, birds, 
flowers and trees had some of this manito of the Great 
Manito or Kitchemanito, in it. Without it they could 
not live. The state of health and well being both in 
peace and war, depended upon one's manito and how 
strong that was to cope with other adverse manitos. 

This Manito or spirit power was called 


Orenda, by the Iroquois, 

Wakonda, by the Sioux, 

Oki, by the Wendats or "Hurons," 

Inua, by the Eskimos, 

Katcina, by the Hopi, 

Nana Ishtohoollo, by the Chickasaw. 

The physical body might be crippled or destroyed 
entirely when the spirit within was weak, but that did 
not affect the man. Those who died, simply went on a 
long journey to rejoin the spirits of those who had gone 
before — usually to the west, where were supposed to be 
the happy hunting grounds and the land of spiritis 
from which all men originally came. (See Appendix 
Note 36). 

Within the Midewiwan or the Wakon-Kitchewa, the 
initiators performed a peculiar ceremony of "shooting" 
this spirit power into the candidate from the mouth of 
a medicine bag, whereupon he must pretend to fall 
senseless, as though dead and then be brought to life, 
filled with the holy spirit. 

Apparently this custom of "shooting" wakonda or 
manito or orenda as the case may be, was not necessarily 
confined to the house of initiation, but was good for the 
entire tribe, men and women. It was merely one of the 
sacred ceremonies within the lodge. 

Johnathan Carver, the explorer saw what he calls a 
"powwow" dance in which this "shooting" was per- 
formed for the benefit of one and all, men and women. 
This was among the Sioux. The idea was to increase the 
power of all the people. The pattern of the idea was 
taken from the sacred mysteries. 

The Algonkin legends indicate that the Midewiwan 
was established among them on the Atlantic Coast be- 


fore their great flood. It was given them from the 
Great Spirit, through the Dzhemanito or Good Spirit, 
first to their culture hero, Nanaboush, because he had 
fought the battles of mankind against the Makimani or 
Bad Spirit and his hosts. Both these Good and Bad 
Spirits had been made by the Great Spirit, in fact are 
to be viewed as opposites of the same thing — the Great 
Spirit. Thus Winter and all hostile forces to man's 
comfort are opposed to Summer and those forces that 
make for man's comfort. All the manitos, good and 
bad, are but the natural powers derived by the in- 
dividuals possessing them from the Great Spirit and 
are "good" or "bad" according to their use by the in- 
dividual in relation to man as a child of the Great Spirit. 

His "Spirit" Is Key To Indian Character 

It is necessary to understand these fundamental con- 
ceptions of "spirit power" before we can rightly ap- 
praise the character and behavior of the aboriginal 
inhabitants of America. For their "sacred mysteries" 
were developed on this continent without European or 
other influence, for thousands of years before the white 
man ever saw it. 

There was, and is, nothing in European culture past 
or present, that parallels the religion of the original 
inhabitants of this continent, unless it be some theo- 
sophical and mystical ideas of the middle ages, and as 
we know those were of oriental origin. 

That the "American mysteries" were of unknown 
antiquity and origin, even to the wisest of the initiated, 
is evidenced by their legends assigning them to the 
Great Spirit itself. 


The Siouans of the East appear to have had the 
mysteries even before the Algonkins. 

The Wacace (Osages) say that the Upper World 
of Mankhe, was also their first lodge and that they 
came to earth as eagles. 

But at first their nation was ignorant and unorgan- 
ized; "Ganitha" as they term it (a word strangely 
reminiscent of the Sanskrit Ganesha, the Greek 
Gnosis, Knowledge) and that it was due first to their 
ancient wise men — "Little Old Men" — meeting to- 
gether and discussing natural phenomena such as the 
behavior of the heavenly bodies, that they finally con- 
cluded there must be some governing power in all 
things, and that this was a creative power. 

They called this power Wakonda. 

Sometimes it is referred to as Ea-Wawonake, the 
causer of our being. The Great Spirit became known 
as Tonga-Wakon, "The Giver of Life." Every Ota 
or chief must be an initiate of the Wakon-Kitchewa or 
Holy Mysteries. 

Eventually the Men of Long Ago, the Nika-Xube, 
concluded that nature itself had its own governing 
power that causes all things to be as they are, where- 
upon they organized themselves and their people so 
as to preserve the knowledge they had gained and to 
continue their researches. ( See Appendix Note 37) . 

It would be interesting, but is unnecessary here, to 
discuss certain curious words common to more than one 
rite of the mysteries, (with varied meanings) that in- 
dicate connections between these rites in North America 
with those of the Pueblo Indians and possibly further 
south. Such as the Algonkin Kitchewan, the Siouan 
Kitchewa and the Hopi Katcina; or the word Nika 


which seems to mean a fraternal brother. (See Appen- 
dix Note 38). 

The point we seek to bring out here, is, that around 
the central idea of the Midewiwan and similar organi- 
zations, that the Great Spirit created all things for the 
benefit of his children, there grew up inevitably, definite 
laws of the Great Spirit, with regard to the conduct of 
human life, both individual, tribal, national and inter- 

We do not have to speculate about these laws that 
were as sacred to the Indian as the religion of any other 
peoples was to them. 

For we have proof of what the laws were, both from 
the Indians' oral statements and their actions. 

It was violation of the Indians' rights as he conceived 
he had them from the Great Spirit, that caused vir- 
tually every war he fought, either with his own color or 
with the whites. Yet these were not wars over religion 
as the Europeans knew the term, but rather over human 
rights and ideals of freedom, such as the American 
Revolution was fought for. 

What were these rights? 


"We were born free — we may go where we please 
and carry with us whom we please." — Garangula, 
Onandago Chief to the French in 1684. 

"Englishmen, although you have conquered the 
French, you have not conquered us. We are not your 
slaves. These lakes, these woods and mountains were 
left to us by our ancestors. They are our inheritance 
and we will part with them to none. Your nation sup- 
poses that we, like the white people, cannot live with- 


out bread and pork and beef. But you ought to know 
that He, the Great Spirit and Master of Life — has 
provided food for us, in these broad lakes and upon 
these mountains." — Minavavana, Chippewa chief to 
Major Henry, 1761. 

"Every Indian or body of Indians has a right to 
choose for themselves whom they will serve. Every 
Indian is a free man and can go where he pleases." 
— Thatcher's Indian Biography, Vol. II, pg. 175. 


"The Great Spirit wishes that all wars and fighting 
would cease." — Cornplanter, Seneca chief, 1782. 

Once war was declared, the Red man, being no hypo- 
crite, fought with all the savagery the occasion demands. 
He put away further thoughts of peace together with 
the Peace King, whose functions automatically ceased. 
The object of war, being to kill the enemy before they 
kill you, he did his best to wipe out the other side, 
undeterred by any sentimental idea of "civilized war" 
or "humane war." Possibly due to this viewpoint, his 
wars were followed by longer eras of peace than those 
of other civilizations while the duration of Indian wars 
compares favorable with European struggles. 

For sake of comparison, let us suppose that if two or 
more nations of our modern civilization decide to settle 
their difficulties by war, their presidents, kings or dic- 
tators automatically lose their offices, regardless of 
their personal feelings about the conflict. They were 
elected to govern for peace and all efforts for peace 
having failed, even though not their fault, they must 
retire. That is what happened in Indian nations. The 


retiring ruler might indeed be elected a war captain, 
but seldom of a rank equal to the one he had filled. 
Should he again become head of his warring nation, he 
must win the distinction by popular approval on the 

The peace King presided over the lesser chieftains 
until they decided war. But he could not vote himself 
on the matter. If possible he tried to find a way toward 
honorable peace. If he could not he said so and left 
the decision to the representatives of the tribes. 

Wars were fought to a real finish, the vanquished 
being so thoroughly subdued, they not only admitted it, 
but very gladly smoked the pipe of peace with no desire 
to fight any more during that generation at least, be- 
cause of sheer physical weakness. 

Sometimes, when small tribes or nations had almost 
been annihilated, the survivors were cheerfully adopted 
into the tribes of their conquerors, given new names 
and henceforth were as loyal to their adopted country as 
though beginning life all over again. This sort of 
naturalization of aliens became more and more the 
vogue between enemy tribes, as they were drawn closer 
together by common enmity to the whites. 

The Iroquois Five Nations adopted the Tuscarora 
nation (also Iroquoian) after it had nearly been wiped 
out by the combined force of the Siouan Catawbas and 
the whites in Carolina. The Tuscarora became the 
Sixth Nation. Also the Iroquois League welcomed and 
adopted members of other dying tribes that were its 
hereditary enemies, such as Delawares, Siouans. 


"There was a time when our forefathers owned this 
great island. Their seats extended from the rising to 


the setting sun. The Great Spirit Had Made It for 
the Use of the Indians. 

"He had created the buffalo, the deer and other ani- 
mals for food. He made the bear and the beaver and 
their skins served us clothing. He had scattered them 
over the country, and taught us how to take them. 

"He had caused the earth to produce corn for bread. 
All this he had done for his Red children because he 
loved them. 

"If we had any disputes about hunting grounds, they 
were generally settled without the shedding of much 
blood." — Red Jacket. 

"The Great Spirit told us not to sell any more of our 
lands, for he never sold lands to any one." 


Buckongahelas, at Vincennes, declared that lands 
which were decided to be the property of the U. S. were 
those of Delawares, transferred by treaty with Pianka- 
shaws 30 years before, all country between Ohio and 
White Rivers. 

"Sell the Land! As well might you pretend to sell 
the air and water. The Great Spirit gave them all 
alike to us, the air for us to breathe, the water to drink, 
and the earth to live and hunt upon — you may as well 
sell the one as the other." 

— Tecumseh, cited page 136, McKinney's Hist. Ind. 
Tri., Vol. III. 

"The idea of real estate is unknown to him, there is 
no rood of ground to which he ever attached the idea of 
possession, past, present or prospective. 

— McKinney, pg. 286 (Id). 

"I am myself come to bid you rise and go with me to 


a secure place. Do not my friends covet the land you now 
hold under cultivation. 

— Buckongahelas to Delawares, pg. 175. 

"If any nations should call themselves owners of it 
they would be guilty of falsehood. Our claim to it is 
equal. Our Elder Brother has conquered it." 

— Chippewa Chief to General Wayne, 1795. 

"If your great father in Washington will consent — 
never to make a treaty for land without the consent of 
All our allied tribes." — Tecumseh. 

"I love my towns and cornfields on Rock River; it is 
a beautiful country. I fought for it, but it is now yours. 
Keep it as the Sacs did. — Black Hawk. 

Brotherhood (1684) 

"You say we are subjects to the King of England and 
the Duke of York. We say we are brethren and take 
care of ourselves." 

— Thatcher's Indian Biog. II, pg. 41. 

War (1684) 

"We knock the Twightwees and Chictaghicks on the 
head, because they had cut down the trees of peace, 
which were the liftiits of our country. They have hunted 
beaver on our lands, contrary to the customs of all 
Indians, for they left none of the beavers alive — they 
killed both male and female. They brought the Satanas 
into their country, to take part with them, after they 
had concerted ill designs against us. We have done 
less than the English or French, that have usurped the 
lands of so many Indian nations, and chased them from 
their own country — which the Great Spirit has given to 
our ancestors. — Garangula, to French Id., pg. 44. 


Buckongahelas, war chief of the Delawares is re- 
ported by Heckewelder as saying: 

"Every Indian or body of Indians had a right to 
choose for themselves, whom they would serve. He had 
hired himself to the King of England to fight the Long 
Knives. The Christian Delawares had hired themselves 
to the Great Spirit to perform prayers — he would never 
trouble them on account of not joining the war. Every 
Indian is a free man and can go where he pleases." 

—Id. pgs. 175-6. 


"These men (priests of white people) do us no good. 
They deny the Great Spirit, which we and our fathers 
before us, have looked upon as our Creator. They dis- 
turb us in our worship. They tell our children they 
must not believe like our fathers and mothers, and tell 
us many things we do not understand and cannot believe. 
They tell us we must be like white people — but they are 
lazy and w r on't work, nor do they teach our young men 
to do so. The habits of our women are worse than they 
were before these men came amongst us, and our young 
men drink more whiskey. — We ask you not to blot out 
the Law which has made us peaceable and happy, and 
not to force a strange religion upon us. We ask to be 
let alone, and like the white people, to worship the 
Great Spirit as we think best. 

— Red Jacket (Iroquois), Id., pg. 289. 
"Blackbird," an Ojibway chief in Michigan in the 
early part of the nineteenth century, wrote a history of 
his people in which he termed the Midewiwan mysteries 
the religion of his people. He explained that the 
"appearance" or "disappearance" of the Otter which 


in the legends brings the mysteries to various places, 
indicated the migration of the religion with the people 
who practiced the Otter rite of it. 

There was also a "Meigis shell" rite, in which a shell 
rose or disappeared above the waters, indicating the 
same thing. 

"Your forefathers crossed the great waters and 
landed on this island. Their numbers were small. 
They found friends, not enemies. They told us they 
had fled from their own country for fear of wicked men, 
and came here to enjoy their religion. They asked for 
a small seat. We granted their request and they sat 
down amongst us. We took them to be friends — they 
called us brothers. . . . We believed them and gave them 
a larger seat. . . . They wanted more land. They wanted 
our country. Our seats were once large. ... we have 
scarcely a place to spread our blankets. You have got 
our country but are not satisfied. You want to force 
your religion upon us. . . . We also have a religion which 
was given to our forefathers and has been handed down 
to us, teaches us to be thankful for all favors we receive, 
to love each other and to be united. We never quarrel 
about religion." — Red Jacket. 

Chief Establishments of the Midewiwan, 
The "Temple" or Priests House 

According to data from Hoffman and Chippewa 

1. Atlantic Coast. 

2. St. Lawrence River — probably near Quebec. 

3. Ottawa River, "centuries before Columbus." 
Probably at Hochelega the Iroquoian capital. 

4. Otter Island — alias Ottawa Island, now Mani- 


toulin in Lake Huron "where they remained for cen- 

5. Awaiting or Anamie-watigong. Modern Cross 

Village, Mich. 

6. Mishenama-kinagung. Mackinaw or Mac- 
kinack Island. 

7. Nemikung or Nemiking, probably Namakan 
River of Canada. 

8. Kiwawinang, — in Michigan. Had special 
reference to the sacred record sticks. A county still 
bears the name. 

9. Bawating or Boweting — Sault St. Marie. 

10. Tshiwitowi — possible in "Shinaking" or Spruce 
Pine Land. 

11. Negawadzheu — Sand Mountain, northern 
shore of Superior. 

12. Minisawikor Minisabikkang — Island of Rocks. 

13. Kawasitshiuwongk — Foaming Rapids. 

14. Mushkisiwi or Mashkisibi Bad River, Michi- 

15. Shagawamokongk, Long Sand Bar Beneath the 
Surface. LaPointe, Wis. This is same as Moning- 
wunkauning of some accounts. Mackenzie knew it as 

16. Wikewedwongga, Sandy Bay. 

17. Neashiwikongk — Cliff Point. Probably Red 
Cliff, Wis. 

18. Netawayasink — Little Point Sand Bar. Fond 
Du Lac on St. Louis River, Wis. 

19. Aribis, Little Elm Tree. 

20. Wikupbimish — Little Basswood Island, Lake 

21. Makubimish — Bear Island, near same. 

22. Shageskihedawanga. 


23. Niwigwassikongk — place where canoe bark is 

24. Tapakweikak or Saapakweshkwaokongk — 
place where lodge bark is obtained. 

25. Neuwesakkudezibi or Newisakudesibi, Point 
Dead Wood Timber River. Deadwood region of 

26. Anibikanzibi, more modern Ashibagisibi or 
Greenleaf River, Minn. Means Fish spawn River and 
may have been the Fish River of the Walam Olum, 
though I incline to think that was No. 7. 

When the Great League divided into Western and 
Eastern divisions under Opekasit, the Midewiwan was 
carried by the Lenape east to the Atlantic Coast as a 
matter of course. 

Symbols and Ritual 

We have it on the authority of Captain John Smith 
of Jamestown, that King Powhattan in Virginia, had a 
"treasure house" at Orapakes, fifty to sixty yards in 
length, frequented only by the priests, at the corners of 
which were images of a Dragon, a Bear, a Panther, and 
a Gigantic Man. 

In these images we recognize the manitos of the four 
principle degrees. 

The "dragon," a great snake, opposed the candidate 
in the very first degree, symbolizing the powers of 
nature, including his own wild passions, that he must 
subdue before he could hope to become a true Mide. 
Thereafter this great snake arched his back to permit 
the initiate to pass under in the succeeding degrees. He 
was accompanied by four lesser snakes who were soon 
disposed of however. 


The manitos of evil appear to have travelled in quar- 
tettes, for there were four spirit entrances to the priest- 
house at the four cardinal points and each must be 
guarded. In the second degree, Makwamanito drives 
away four bad bear spirits. In the third degree the 
Panther manito drives away four bad panther spirits. 

Two bear and two panther bad manitos must be 
overpowered and driven away in the fourth degree. 

The Mide or true priest, is "he that lives on an 
island" and the island is that of Nanabush, his home 
of Minisinoshkwe above the earth in the land of spirits, 
though some say far to the north and others say 
vaguely here or there. 

Captain Smith, with his mind on "treasures," learned 
nothing more of the Midiwiwan establishment of the 
Powhattans — the Midiwigan as the name is. Had he 
done so, he might have refrained from trying to entice 
the King into war with certain Algonkins against whom 
Smith felt certain both of them needed "protection." 
At least he might have understood the King's biting 
sarcasm when he told the captain his geography was 
badly out of line. 

White and Red "Witchcraft" 

The Puritans on the other hand, did recognize the 
fact that the Indians who had welcomed and befriended 
them had a "religion." But to them it was "devil 
worship" and they said so loudly and often. They never 
seemed to understand that conversions to the true faith 
were made through fear in the heart of the convert and 
that the numerous villages of "praying Indians" their 
preachers finally succeeded in establishing, were an 
offense though not a cause of war in itself. (See Appen- 
dix Note 39). 


The Indian wars were brought on by the steady in- 
croachment of the whites on the rights of the Indian in 
the fruits of the land — not the unoccupied land itself. 
And when these wars came, the Pilgrim Fathers dis- 
covered to their dismay, that all their religious teaching 
had gone for naught. Many of the "Christian" Indians 

It took the Witchcraft craze among the New England 
settlers to bring home to the Algonkins, how unsafe it 
was to trust the white man. 

As early as 1653, a Mrs. Knapp, who was hanged 
as a witch in New Haven Colony, seems to have told a 
story about another woman to the effect that this 
woman told her about an Indian bringing her "two little 
bright things, brighter than the light of day" which were 
"Indian Gods" and informing his recipient that if she 
would keep them she would become rich. Of course 
she did not know whether her friend kept them or not 
though she said she had given them back to the Indians. 

Another old lady of New Haven went to the authori- 
ties to get their good offices in suppressing slander 
against her. Gossips were saying that Hobbamock, the 
Devil of the Indians, was her husband. As the gossips 
were wives of prominent people, this old lady was her- 
self convicted of witchcraft! One of the witnesses 
against her was an Indian girl servant who had been 
soundly whipped by her master for practicing her own 
religious rites. 

It is relieving to know that the death penalty was not 
imposed in this case but the old lady put under a peace 
bond secured by her own property. 

Accused of taking an Indian child to nurse and letting 
her own starve, another woman was sent from East- 
hampton, Long Island, to Connecticut on a charge of 


witchcraft, in 1657. She was given a sort of Scotch 
verdict and placed with her relatives on good behavior. 
So greatly concerned were the New Englanders over 
the practice of "witchcraft" among the Indians that 
they passed this law in 1675 : 

"Whosoever Shall Powau or Use Witch- 
craft or Any Worship of the Devil, or Any 
False Gods, Shall Be Convented and Pun- 

This was of course aimed directly at the Mides and 
the Midewiwan, the former being regarded as sor- 
cerers and the latter probably unknown by name — other 
than as the possible habitation of the Devil "Hobba- 

Religious toleration among the white races was a 
thing unknown in those days, either in America or 
Europe, Roger Williams being the first exception, as 
Redpath points out. It seems strange that those who 
wanted this toleration most and had fled Europe to 
escape persecution for conscience sake, should become 
themselves so intolerant, but such was the case. 

The Indians were given other much earlier examples 
of it than the Salem Witchcraft. The expulsion of 
Roger Williams, first from his pulpit and then from the 
colony, chiefly because he insisted that not even a King's 
grant made it right to take the Indians' land away with- 
out paying him a fair price. 

He was the first white man to even partly see the 
Indian viewpoint with regard to land. When he had 
been received and given lands by the Indians themselves 
from whom he purchased tracts that he colonized, he 
still strove to save his fellow settlers from the horrors 


of the Pequod war, by informing them as his friends 
had informed him and later by pursuading the Narra- 
gansets not to join the war. Even for this service he 
was not allowed to return ! 

The effect of this violation of the laws of the Great 
Spirit upon the Indians, had consequences in New Eng- 
land for more than a century. Only William Penn's 
thorough understanding of the native respect for the 
laws of the Great Spirit, with which he conformed in 
every way, called a halt in Indian minds to the con- 
sideration of all whites as treacherous madmen who 
attempted to usurp the place of the Great Spirit ! 


The Calumet and Wampum 

The Calumet or Pipe of Peace, so called, was another 
universal institution of aboriginal America before the 
arrival of Europeans. 

And this too, sprung from the mysteries. 

It governed international relations in peace or war, 
with greater certainty as to results perhaps, than 
modern diplomacy. For the Calumet was from the 
Great Spirit. Ceremonial dances were to the Calumet 
and all it represented, rather than in celebration Of it. 

Most of us are familiar with the legend of the sacred 
Pipestone Quarry which the Great Spirit made holy 
ground so that all people could come to dig for the 
peculiar soft red stone out of which the best peace 
pipes were made. Truce between enemies must be 
observed on this neutral ground. And the truce was 
never broken. 

Originally the Calumet was not a pipe at all but two 
shafts of reed or wood, from 18 inches to four feet 
long, usually perforated for the passage of the breath or 
spirit. Attachment of a pipe filled with tobacco of the 
Great Spirit, was a later innovation, though obviously 
an ancient one, perhaps as old as the cultivation of 

These two shafts were the Niniba Weawan and one 
was male and the other female. 

Through them the celebrant sent out his own spirit 
to mingle with that of the Great Spirit and in return 
breathed in the breath of Kitchemanito himself. 



Thus the Great Spirit was present and participating 
in the counsels of all bearers of the pipe. Agreements 
were more binding where the Calumet was invoked, 
than any number of sworn statements could possibly 
have been, for deliberate violation of such an agree- 
ment invited punishment by the Great Spirit, which 
might come from any of his faithful children or from 
some sudden and terrible catastrophe in the chase or 
other ordinary pursuit of life. The violator's Manito 
would become weak, since the Great Spirit could easily 
withdraw it at any time. 

Even if not withdrawn, having offended Kitche- 
manito, one's personal Manito was bound to be very 
bad and must depend upon association with the Bad 
manitos for its future welfare. 

These "prayer sticks" performed the same functions 
for travellers among other nations, as the modern 
passport system does for us. When the whites came 
among the Indians, they found that the possession of a 
Calumet given by one tribe, a common passport through- 
out their journeys. 

Ambassadors were all Pipe Bearers. The Calumet 
was used to conciliate unfriendly peoples and effect 
alliances with the friendly. It was also used to petition 
the Great Spirit for favorable weather for journeys; 
for needed rain; for attesting contracts and treaties. 

To refuse the Calumet was an unfriendly act. 

In using it, with pipe attached, smoke was blown to 
the four quarters of the earth and to the sky by each of 
the successive smokers, who passed it from one to an- 

Ceremonial regulations surrounded the smoking of 
the Calumet to such an extent that various assistants 
were employed in great occasions. Its decorations of 


feathers and fur from various birds and animals, were 
all symbolic of various manitos relating to the subject 
under consideration by the smokers. In some cere- 
monies, the smoking pipe itself was omitted and its 
place taken by such objects, regarded by the whites as 
"fetishes." Forked sticks were required to support t! 
hollow stems. 

Songs and dancing were among the accompaniments 
of the ceremony to the Calumet. 

Now in all this, it was the Calumet itself that was 
honored and not the bearers or the smokers of it, nor 
the senders or receivers nor yet the agreement reached 
by them. The dancing and the songs were to the Calu- 
met because it was sacred and a gift from the Great 
Spirit — or as the Sioux said the Sun, symbol of Tongo- 

Wampum Recorded Agreements on the Calumet 

When words of wisdom had been agreed upon by the 
Council in which the Calumet was honored, belts of 
wampum were exchanged recording the fact. Into the 
wampum were woven the symbols that enabled the 
initiated to recall the exact terms agreed upon. (See 
Appendix Notes 23 and 40). 

This was equivalent, in the case of peace treaties 
for example, to signed, sealed and delivered and ac- 
cepted state papers. 

Thus wampum had far greater significance than 
might be supposed from its use as a commercial pro- 
duct. One of the occupations of Indians in peace time 
was the manufacture of wampum, either from rough 
shell clay or stone beads or some equivalent such as 
porcupine quills dyed various colors and cut into very 
small pieces like elongated beads. 


Just as the Calumet existed for many purposes, so 
did wampum. 

The New England settlers did a thriving business 
with the Indians in bright colored beads and were soon 
using beads as money and collecting taxes and tribute 
from the natives in wampum. 

There is one legend concerning the origin of wam- 
pum that illustrates the picturesque symbolism of the 
Red man when accounting for some of his customs 
perhaps better than any other. 

In the ancient councils of priests, (ethnologists in- 
sist on calling them "shamans" as though they were 
Mongols) every time an exceedingly great priest drew 
upon his pipe, wampum fell from his mouth. If the 
wampum was white, it denoted the priest was of medium 
power; if half white and half reddish he was least 
powerful; but if almost black, then he would win over 
these "shamans" and others who had the most wampum. 

So it came about that two nations making a treaty of 
peace gave each other, the beads woven into a belt, de- 
signed with two hands, meaning they would fight no 

The symbol of the two hands as peace signs is easily 
understood in all languages. Among the ancient priest- 
hoods as pictured on ceremonial objects both in North 
and Central America, will be found the open hand on 
the skirt or apron worn around the waist. And all 
know the modern Indian sign of peace which preceded 
the Fascist sign and probably ancient Rome by a good 
many centuries; the raised open right hand. 

The House of the Mysteries, whether in the more 
pretentious stationary temples of the Natchez and 
agricultural tribes of the South, or the temporary bark 
and wicker structures of the nomadic Northern Algon- 


kins, was literally the source of all governmental 
authority. The life of individuals and nations had been 
moulded by its teachings for ages when Columbus 
started out for India and wound up in America. 

And there was obviously a cult of priesthood and 
prophets, as closely bound together by ties of mystic 
brotherhood as were the Sons of the Prophets in 
Biblical times. Peace Kings were not allowed to hold 
office once war had been declared. Their function and 
tenure of office automatically expired. 

These Peace Kings might have been War Chiefs in 
their time but their duties as Peace Kings were no sine- 
cure. And few of them were elected War Chiefs after 
failure as Peace Chieftains! 

Insofar from the Indian being simply addicted to 
War and bloodshed from sheer savagery and the lack 
of any authority to curb his bloodthirstyness, the Holy 
Mysteries inclined him toward the ways of peace as we 
have seen in the actual history of the Great Lenape 
League as related by the Lenape, for more than eleven 

But the Indian was also taught bravery and all 
manly qualities from childhood. He was perhaps 
treated less harshly than the admired Spartan youth or 
the Persian lads who were thrown in snow banks to live 
or die. In fact the Indians were extraordinarily kind 
to their children, and like the Esquimaux, rarely if 
ever beat them for punishment. 

Captain Smith, who noted with suspicion the per- 
formances of the Indians around Jamestown with 
young boys who were taken off into the woods and did 
not come back, seems to have concluded they were being 
"sacrificed" to idols or something and what did he care. 
Those who think the Indians had no humor should read 


the replies of the natives to his prying questions. Yes, 
they said maybe some of the lads would not be able to 
stand it and die. 

It was this "Indian Religion," that caused the first 
natives encountered by Europeans, to greet their 
visitors hospitably, surrender to them even whole vil- 
lages and other "seats" for homes, teach them to grow 
crops and prepare meals and make clothes and hunt and 

The first settlers of Maryland were obviously so 
bewildered that the kindly natives moved out of their 
village overnight to accommodate them. That village 
grew into the modern St. Mary's. Salem, Massachu- 
setts, of Witchcraft fame, was originally known as 
Naumbeg. Bristol, Rhode Island, was Massasoit's 
capitol of Pokahoket. 

Tamanend III lived near the outskirts of modern 
Philadelphia, and that city became a council place for 
the Delaware. A surprisingly large number of Ameri- 
can cities were originally Indian villages, some still 
bearing the names or corruptions of them. 

And it was the European's refusal to adapt himself to 
the laws of the land in which he expected to make his 
fortune, that led to the long and bloody conflicts between 
him and the natives. 

Especially was this so with regard to title in lands as 
already explained. 

This law being also derived from the "Indian Reli- 
gion," it gradually became obvious to the natives of all 
nations and tribes that they must band together as one, 
regardless of old feuds, or die separately. 

Which accounts for the wars from "King Philip's" to 
Tecumseh and the lesser wars afterward. 


The Liberty Boys and St. Tammany 

Pioneer trappers and hunters of all the contending 
European governments exploiting America, were natur- 
ally the first whites to learn with respect, some of the 
native ideals concerning freedom in a free land. 

They, by the necessities of their profession, cultivated 
friendly relations with as many tribes as possible, often 
resulting in lasting professions of brotherhood between 
them and the Red brother. Whether a French "courier 
du boise" or a Virginia "long hunter," these whites 
were themselves nomads, to whom their red friends 
sometimes unburdened themselves in regard to the per- 
manent settlers fast driving away the game that meant 
life or death for the Indian. 

So it is not surprising that the colonists, with nearly 
two hundred years opportunity for absorbing the 
native viewpoint concerning the nature of this land and 
the position in it of free men, entitled to such of its 
resources as they could procure from their own exer- 
tions, came to have a very real regard for many old 
traditions arising out of the Tamanend ideal. And as 
for the Tamanend legend of the Delawares, whether 
viewed as reference merely to William Penn's friend, 
or to the ancient kings of the name before him, he was 
undoubtedly a "Saint" in American eyes, compared 
with anything British or European ! 

All throughout the Colonies, prior to the American 



Revolution, militia companies or semi-military groups 
based their social organizations on the Indian pattern, 
and often with Indian ceremonies. 

Many of them regarded the story of Tamanend a 
fitting symbol for their ideals of freedom. As a friend 
of Americans before the whites came, and especially 
after they came with William Penn, this Tamanend 
himself was an original American holy man worthy of 
being sainted — so he was promptly given the name of 
Saint Tammany, patron of America. 

Maypoles became Liberty poles, around which the 
new children of St. Tammany danced with more or less 
grace and vigor. May 1, or as others have it, May 12 
was set aside on revolutionary calendars as St. Tam- 
many's day and celebrated with festivals in approved 
Indian fashion. 

The Liberty Boys carried on the idea through the 
Revolution. A party of their "braves" emptied some 
tea into Boston Harbor. The American soldiers car- 
ried the Tammany ideals the length and breadth of the 
country they were fighting for. There is still a St. Tam- 
many's parish in Louisiana and various towns named 
Tammany scattered up and down the coast. 

When the military Societies of St. Tammany closed 
after the Revolution, one of them, originally a loyalist 
Society of King Tammany, continued as the Improved 
Order of Red Men! 

As after all American wars, many veterans decided 
that some perpetual organization should be formed. 
Most of the officers favored something after a Euro- 
pean pattern, a bit aristocratic and possibly a dispenser 
of medals, honors and titles. George Washington was 
urged to make himself King. He refused with more 
anger than scorn, swearing vigorously, it is said. 


The officers however went ahead with their plans 
and founded the Society of the Cincinnatus, named after 
the ancient Roman farmer who left his plow to win a 
war for his country. Into this society few if any com- 
mon soldiers were allowed. 

American Veterans Organize "Tammany" Society 

The Common Soldiers got up an organization of 
their own headed by William Mooney in New York, 
1786, a former leader in the "Sons of Liberty." Its 
purpose was to guard 

"The independence, popular liberty and federal 
union of the country." 

It politically opposed the efforts of the aristocratic 
element, represented by Alexander Hamilton and the 
Federalists, for making the government practically a 

This organization was sometimes called "The Colum- 
bian Order" and its ritual was based on supposed Indian 
Customs, but was commonly alluded to as the Tammany 
Society and regarded as a revival of the Revolutionary 
societies of that name. 

"St. Tammany" however was an Algonkin saint and 
New York's chief Indian tribes were Iroquois, so to 
balance state and national pride, the "Wigwam" of the 
new Society (Wigwam being an Algonkin word) was 
patterned after the Long House of the Iroquois. Pos- 
sibly there were similar clashes of Indian patterns in 
the ritual, though the Algonkin names of officers seem 
to have been preserved while the ritual was made 
dominantly Iroquoian. 

There were 13 tribes to correspond to the thirteen 
states each of which was to have its own state organiza- 
tion and Indian totem, as follows. 


New York, The Eagle, 
New Hampshire, The Otter, 
Massachusetts, The Panther, 
Rhode Island, The Beaver, 
Connecticut, The Bear, 
Delaware, The Tiger, 
Pennsylvania, The Rattlesnake, 
Maryland, The Fox, 
Virginia, The Deer, 
North Carolina, The Buffalo, 
South Carolina, The Raccoon, 
Georgia, The Wolf. 

The Kitchi Okeinaw or Grand Sachem, an honorary 
national office, was conferred on the President of the 
United States. This office was held by Washington, 
Adams, Jefferson, John Q. Adams and Jackson, after 
which it was abolished. 

The chief of a "Tribe" was its Sachem; the master 
of ceremonies, the Sagamore; The Sergeant at Arms, 
the Wiskinskie. Its era began 1492 and included the 
foundation of the Society and the Declaration of Inde- 

The records were kept by moons and seasons and the 
costumes were semi-Indian dress. 

Mooney held this society together for 20 years and 
until the War of 1 8 1 2 its efforts are credited with saving 
this Republic as a Republic. The aristocratic ideal was 
very effectually obscured and made harmless. The 
Constitution of the United States adopted the year 
after Mooney's revival of the St. Tammany ideals 
perhaps owes more than history credits them for, to the 
original members of the Tammany Society. 

They were chiefly instrumental in negotiating a peace 


treaty with the Creek Indians in 1790, which secured 
peace along the Southern border. They met the dele- 
gates of the creed nation in full regalia and entertained 
them in approved Indian style. 

The Indian Museum, germ of the New York His- 
torical Society, was founded by Tammany. 

Burial was given the remains of Revolutionary vic- 
tim of British prison ships at Wallabout Bay, in 1808. 

Tammany furnished three generals in the war of 
1812 and had 1200 men constructing the defences of 
New York City. 

Gradually as the political power of the Society over- 
shadowed its other activities, and the other state organ- 
izations died out, it became the sole society of its kind 
and peculiarly was a New York institution. 

It continued its patriotic work however up to the 
time of the Civil War. 

General Montgomery's body was brought back from 
Canada in 1817. 

Tammany was responsible for securing full manhood 
suffrage in New York State in 1826 and five years later 
succeeded in abolishing imprisonment for debt. 

Its Grand Sachem went to war in 1861 as Colonel 
of the 42nd New York Infantry raised entirely from its 
own members. 

It has been said, with some truth, that Americans are 
the greatest "joiners" in the world. The number of 
patriotic and other organizations, each with some ideal 
connected with the welfare of this nation, has grown to 
legion since the Revolution. Tracing their origin and 
history is somewhat similar to a labor in geneology. 

But the common ideal of all of them, seems to center 
around the perpetuation of peace and prosperity by 
making its members better American citizens. To do 


this, there is invariably found somewhere in the "ritual" 
those ideas of freedom in a free land for free men, that 
are the outstanding characteristics of the ancient 
American Tamanends. 

None but Americans themselves, seem able to com- 
prehend them. 


The Walam Olum or Red Score 

Dr. Alexander Ward of Cynthiana, Ky., secured the 
"bundles of painted sticks" which constitute the Walam 
Olum or Red Score, in 1820. It is believed he got them 
in return for some important service rendered "a Dela- 
ware chief" possibly the Grand Sachem himself. 

He turned them over to Constantine Rafinesque, 
then holding a chair at Transylvania University, Lex- 
ington, Kentucky, and the distinguished French scien- 
tist, himself deeply interested in archeology and eth- 
nology, secured the songs from other Delawares, two 
years later. 

After learning the Delaware language himself, he 
translated the "tally sticks," full of hieroglyphics, and 
with the aid of Dr. Brinton of Philadelphia, recon- 
structed a history therefrom in 1833 which has been 
the puzzle of ethnologists since. There have been 
several translations made since that time, the latest in 
1925 under the auspices of the Pennsylvania Historical 
Commission with the aid of James Webber "a Dela- 
ware ex-chief." 

Very little difference can be found between the several 
literal translations naturally, since Rafinesque unques- 
tionably did excellent work and was known to be an 
accomplished linguist. It is in the various interpreta- 
tions of the literal text that the widest variations occur. 
Dr. Brinton was inclined to view this history as cover- 



ing a period of thousands of years — two thousand any- 
way ! 

Some would have the Lenape coming from the west 
instead of the north east. For a long while, many 
serious students doubted the authenticity of the record. 
It is generally conceded today that it is a genuine abor- 
iginal record. 

But what history does it actually reveal? With what 
period does this history deal? 

By several fortunate circumstances, I was enabled to 
find what I believe to be the correct answers to both 
questions, though I must disclaim all pretension to being 
a linguist myself, or to having made any new literal 
translation of the text. 

Squeer's translation happens to be the one from 
which I have reconstructed the history and which I 
have attempted to turn into a rough metrical story, 
more in keeping with the native language. Not that it 
is pretended to be "poetry" for even Longfellow found 
the cadence of the Red man's chants impossible to 
adapt to the white man's conception of rhythm. It is 
too distinctly American ! 

The fortunate circumstances were, that after many 
years of browsing through literature concerning Indian 
nations, and coming to many conclusions entirely op- 
posite to those I had started with, I found that Colonel 
Lucien Beckner, of Louisville, Ky., having undertaken 
much the same sort of research, and being an old college 
chum, in addition to being one of the foremost Indian 
students in the United States, was quite agreeable to 
lending me the results of his labors for inspection. 

To him belongs the honor of making the first tenta- 
tive chronology for the Walam Olum by means of 
taking the two cited occasions on which the record says 


that "Whites were coming," fixing known historical 
dates to them, and dividing the time between these dates 
by the number of Sakima or Kings mentioned in between. 

Chronology of the Red Score 

There could, of course, be very little latitude between 
the years selected by him and myself for these two fixed 
dates, because the only question that could arise as to 
the exact year, was in a difference of opinion as to which 
of two or more events occurring closely together, was 
more likely to have attracted the attention of the 
natives, considering all the circumstances. 

Thus, his tentative first date for the chronology is 
that of Verrizanos voyage in 1521. I selected John 
Cabot's voyage of 1498, because it was the earliest and 
for several lateral reasons. 

Upon the second or ending date, both were agreed 
as to the settlement of Jamestown, Va., and the coming 
of the Dutch into New York. Instead of 1621 I con- 
cluded the year must be one in which the followers of 
Captain John Smith had not as yet so angered the 
Algonkins that they were openly attempting to destroy 
the first settlement in Southern Algonkin territory. The 
date 1617 1 finally selected may be a trifle too late at 

To other dates depending upon Indian legend and 
probable connection with the story, reasons for which 
are not essential here, enabled a final adjustment of the 
chronology which, over a period of eleven centuries, 
shows remarkably little discrepancy between Colonel 
Beckner's work and my own. 

This approximate and tentative chronology of course 
deals only with the obviously historical part of the 


narrative. The mystical and legendary portion affords 
a very rich field for future ethnological research. 

As to the reconstruction of the historical part, 
Colonel Beckner's preliminary work and conclusions, 
with which at first I was inclined to agree, simply did 
not fit into the facts as I came to view them after con- 
siderable research. Instead of all historical action 
having taken place east of the Mississippi, as we both 
originally assumed, it seemed impossible for this to 
have happened if many of Colonel Beckner's soundest 
conclusions in other respects were true. 

Moreover the early stories told to pioneers by the 
Delaware, insisted that the Lenape came from west of 
the Mississippi, and our early historians pointed out 
that ever since the Europeans first came to these shores, 
the Delaware had slowly been returning west of the 
Father of Waters from which they originally came. 

In short, the reconstruction of history as I have pre- 
sented it in these pages, is the only one that seems to 
fit exactly into all the known facts and conclusions of 
modern research. 

It would probably be out of place here to comment 
at any great length on the nature of the hieroglyphics 
of the Walam Olum, other than to say they were merely 
mnemonic symbols, a sort of aboriginal shorthand, 
from which the singers at a festival could recite what 
they had learned orally — and do it word for word. In 
the "mysteries" or holy side of Indian life, certain 
symbols to aid memory were burned and later painted 
on short flat sticks which were then tied into bundles, 
equivalent to our chapters of a book. In addition to 
this, a wider use was made of strings or belts of wam- 
pum for the same purpose. 

Obviously, therefore, the literal translation of a word 


or combination of a word derived from naming these 
symbols, by no means tells the whole story. 

It was realization of this fact that led me to question 
the inner and full meaning of much of the literal trans- 
lation. In doing so, when a large number of legends 
were compared with the translated symbols, and often 
the very name of a symbol plus legend seemed to be 
perpetuated in the name of a geographical location, the 
story as I have written it, began to take such definite 
form, that I could not escape the conclusion I was on 
the right track. 

To use but one illustration, the first Tamanend or 
Affable is said in the literal translation to be "the first 
of the name," because these words are meant by the 
Lenape word Nekohatami. 

A Scotch fur trader of the eighteenth century how- 
ever happens to record an interesting story told him by 
the natives concerning one of their old places on Rainey 
River. There, was where the "Nectam" lived who is 
described as King of all the Algonkin Nations of the 
Lake Superior region and a Peace King who cannot 
declare war but who presides over the Grand Council. 

Here then is proof that Nekohtami was itself a 
title of Tamanend and its meaning in connection with 
legends of Tamanend, included the idea that he was 
First in all things — which is covering a lot of territory, 
but no more than the admirers of George Washington 
did when they held him First in War, Peace and the 
hearts of his countrymen! 

One significant word of this sort includes so many 
ideas that perhaps the original chanters of the Walam 
Olum got out of it far more than the extensive story 
here set down. They knew more about the events with 
which the symbols were concerned. 


With these preliminary suggestions, the reader is 
left to judge whether the more or less metrical setting 
of the Walam Olum, and notes thereto are justified. 

Book I. Genesis 


At first the sea all land did cover; 
Heavy mists were all about it 
And Kitche Manito, Great Spirit 
Everywhere, unseen, eternal. 

He made the earth; He made the heavens; 
He made the sun, the moon, the stars too 
And caused them all to move in order. 

Strong winds cleared away the thick fog, 
Blew the waters from the highlands 
So we have now many islands, 
Many streams and rushing waters. 
So the world grew greener, brighter. 

Kitche Manito then made him 
Lesser manitos, his helpers, 
Creators, watchers over Nature. 



Made the first of beings, spirits; 

Souls He made and human beings; 

For every living thing a mother. 

He made fishes, He made turtles, 

He made beasts and made the birds too. 

But Makimani, Evil Spirit, 
Made the first of all bad beings; 
The mystery snake and all sea monsters. 
'Twas he that made the fly, the gnat too. 

All creation then was friendly, 
For truly manitos were active; 
Nature's manitos were kindly. 

As wives, they gave men those first mothers; 
Provided food when people asked it. 
All had happy cheerful minds — then. 
There was leisure; there was pleasure. 


But then came to this land so stealthy, 
Wakon Powako, Great Magician; 
Priest snake, with an evil power; 
Priest of foes with bad intention. 
Wickedness he brought — unhappiness 


For the people in that country. 
Storms, bad weather, death and sickness 
Followed in his path of evil. 

These things happened long ago there 
In the ancient world of first things 
On Kitahikan,* the Great Ocean. 

Book II. The Flood 


Long ago, when Maskanako 

Strong Snake, leader 

Of those first cohorts of evil, 

Greatly hated our forefathers, 

He and they waged constant warfare; 

Hurt each other — never peaceful. 

There was fighting, there was driving 
Men from homelands, sending people 
To the land of the Dead Keeper 
(To the realm of Chipiapoos 
One of Nanabousha's Brothers.) 

*Mide on Atlantic, 8000-10,000 years ago. 


Maskanako was determined 

To destroy that first creation; 

To destroy both men and creatures. 

Three allies had Maskanako. 
Black Snake (made by Makimani, 
Evil Spirit to the Mide; 
For the mystic rite of Mide). 

Then a Monster, all devouring, 
(Even Chakekenapok the flinty) 
Stirred the Great Snake waters 
Of a sudden, rushing flood-time. 

Rushed that flood down through the valleys 
Laying waste and bringing terror. 

But Nanabush, the Strong White One 
Was at Tula, on his island. 
Nanabush the grandfather 
Of those first men and first creatures. 
He was walking there, attending 
To the creeping things, the turtles 


Being born in Turtle Country 
(Giving name to Turtle Island, 
Nanabush's home in Tula.) 


To this haven there at Tula, 
Struggled all the first men wildly; 
Through the floods came all the creatures 
Seeking safety on the Turtle, 
On the Turtle-back of Tula. 

Some were swimming through the waters, 
Some were wading through the shallows, 
Some were creeping, gasping, broken, 
Many floated down to Tula 
On the rising flood of waters 
Covering all but Turtle Island. 


And in the waters great sea-monsters 
Seized and ate some of the people. 


Grandfather Nanabush had pity, 
Helped his creatures to the island. 
Was he not the friend of mankind, 
And grandfather of all turtles? 



Also Nanabush's daughter 
(Spirit daughter, yet half mortal) 
To and fro in her canoe went 
Helping, saving, from the waters. 


Then were men like turtles huddled 
All together on the Turtle 
In that island land of Tula, 
Frightened, praying, despondent, 
Knowing only life was in them. 


Then their prayers (unto the Spirits, 
to Grandfather Nanabusha) 
Asked the gift of restoration 
From disaster and from wreckage; 
Asked return of what the flood took, 
Freedom from that Maskanako. 


Their prayers were answered when the waters 
Ran from off the land they lived in 
And the lakes once more subsided; 
When the plains and when the mountains 
Free from water, now were dried up 
And Maskanako had departed, 
Leaving all once more in silence, 
Leaving peace behind and silence. 



III. Tula 


Like turtles in holes, lived the Lenni Lenape 
When the flood had subsided, the waters had stilled. 
All were together, all closely crowded 
In caves and in hollows, in crudest of shelters. 

It is cold in that land, for it freezes and snows there. 
It storms in that northland we came from of old. 

In that far northern place, people longed for a milder 
Climate like that our race had once by the ocean, 
Where deer were abundant and buffalo plentiful. 
(A land to the southward, much nearer the sea.) 

So our people spread out as they travelled, dividing 
According to bent, into hunters and farmers. 
Those who were strong, hunted food for the people. 
The priests, (who were elders and learned in wisdom) 
Guarded the homes, taught making of houses. 



But the hunters were strongest, united and holy 
(for the best men alone are worthy the secrets 
Of Nature as taught by the priests of the Mide; 
Theirs the four stations where the Otter appeared). 


To the North, to the East, to the South and the West- 

The hunters first showed themselves, good men and 
true men. 

And the best in that White Land, the Northland of 

Were the Lenape of the Turtle Clan, first men of Tula. 

Now at every home fire in the land men were troubled 
By the Nakapowa whose warning caused sorrow. 
"Leave everybody for Snakeland to eastward." 
War had weakened the nation, divided and trembling 
From burnt homes, were many fleeing toward sunrise 
For haven in Akomenaki, Snake Island. 


Only the tribes in the North, free from trouble, 

Free from destruction, could move as they pleased, 

Sending their bands out in any direction. 

The fathers of Bald Eagle, sachem of Eagles, 

The fathers of White Wolf, head of the Wolf clan, 

Chose to remain on Pokhapokhapek 

Where the muscles and fishes there made the sea rich. 



Our ancestors have always explored up the rivers 
In boats, as they did then, finding good hunting. 
Akomenaki that eastward Snake Island 
Also was rich ( so the hunters reported ) . 


Head Beaver (the Sachem to Eastward) took counsel 
With Big Bird 1 (the Eagle division to Northward) ; 
"Let us all go to Snake Island" decided these sachems, 
And now all agreed with their chieftains to go. 


Everyone shouted, "Come let us go snaking 
With leaders so bold, come, let us destroy 
This fortified place on thte enemy island." 
The Eagles, the Beavers, Northern and Eastern 
(frontiers of the League of the Algonkin people) 
Agreed to cross over the hard frozen waters 
And seize upon Akomenaki and hold it. 


'Twas winter and out on the slippery water 
Of the stony hard sea, the adventurers went. 
They trod the great ocean, Kitahikan they walked on, 
Pokhakhopek they crossed on toward Akominaki. 

iBig Bird (Kicholen), 590 A.D. 



Ten thousand people crossed o'er Kitahikan 
All in one night, all walking and walking, 
Going to Snake Island, walking and walking, 
Coming from North and from East and from South. 


The Eagles, the Beavers, the Wolves, were the tribes- 
The priests came, the rich men, the women and children, 
And even the dogs on that wonderful journey. 


They crossed to a land full of spruces and pine trees 
And tarried for years at Shinaking. That country they 
Named from its forests Spruce-Pineland (a good land 
With its shores and its fishing, the sea for defense.) 


A vast number came to Shinaking from Tula. 

But the Westerners doubted — they loved their old 

So parted the Lenni Lenape of the Turtle 
Who held the west door of the Algonkin League. 



Book IV 


Long ago at Spruce-pineland 
Our fathers dwelt with Wapallanewa. 2 
He was King; he was pipe-bearer, 
While we searched for Akhomenis, 
For that big and fine "Snake Island." 

Bald Eagle died there, in Shinaking, 
While the hunters made them ready 
For the quest of Akhomenis, 
For that journey to the Island. 

Then was called the great Menalting — 
Where the leaders smoked together 
And decided peace and warfare. 
One was chosen for the Sachem, 
All there said unto Kolawil, 3 
"You be King, you are the leader." 
(He was chosen, was Kolawil, 
For his wisdom, manly bearing. 
"Beautiful Head" his name, has meaning) 

2 Wapallanewa (Bald Eagle, Pipe Bearer and Nakopowa), 600 A.D. 

3 Kolawil— Sakim (Fine Head), 611 A.D. 


We came upon the Snakes at Snake Mound, 
Stormed and took it, though defended. 
Some of the foe were slain; the weak ones 
Fled for concealment to the Bear Hills. 

After Kolawil, Wapaghokos * 
Was King in Spruce-pineland, 
White Owl, sachem in Shinaking. 

Janotowi, 5 after White Owl, 

He was "On Guard," that true-maker 

(King of all Algonkin people). 

After him, they chose Chilili e — 
Snow Bird — they elected Nectam, 
And he counselled going southward, 
That our fathers spread abroad there 
And possess the land they wanted. 

Chilili lead us south, with honor 
While the Beavers, eastward went — 
Theirs was e'er the eastern portal 
Of the League; their's to guard it. 

4 Wapagokhos (White Owl); Nekama — "Nectam"? 621 A.D. 
Janotowi (On Guard or True Maker), 633 A.D. 
•Chilili (Snow Bird), 643 A.D. 



For "Snakeland" was that land to Southward. 
Great Shinaking was toward the Shore, 
With "Fishland" eastward (of the Beavers) ; 
Buffalo Land was toward the Lakes. 


After Chilili, one called "Siezer" 7 
Was made King — the Great Warrior, 
Even Ayamek, he was Nectam. 
He had wars with all these people: — 


He fought Snakes, the Akhonapi 

On the South of the Lenape. 

He fought too the Assinapi, 

"Stone Men" (once a friendly Snake Tribe), 

With Evil Men and Robbers — (Rebels 

Were these evil Makatapi, 

Rebels were these Chikonapi). 


Ayamek died and there was warfare, 
South and East, for generations. 
Ten Kings fought in this long struggle. 
(Little time for making records). 

7 Ayamek (Great Warrior or "Siezer"), 644 A.D. 
8 — 17 unnamed, 654 — 761 A.D. 


After these kings Peaceable was King there 

Over Snake Land, Akolaking. 

Langundowi 1 * was the peace king. 

After this one, Tasukamend, 19 

They called Not Black, just and straight man 

Was the King and next Much Loved, 

Pemaholend, 20 good-deed doer. 


Then came Matemik 21 the builder, 
He built towns, "No Blood" they called him 
(He was peaceful like the others 
Making peace and building towns). 
Pilwhalen, 22 holy, pure one 
Followed Matemik the Builder. 
Gunokim, 23 Snowfather came next 
Mangipitak, 24 Big Teeth followed him. 


Then came Olum-api 25 King who made the 
Records of the Walam Olum 
(Painted sticks tied up in bundles 
Records of the Red Score starting.) 

18 Langundowi (Peaceable), 761 A.D. 

19 Tasukamend (Never Bad or "Not Black"), 773 A.D. 
20 Pemaholend (Much Loved), 783 A.D. 

21 Matemik (No Blood or The Builder), 804 A.D. 

22 Pilwhalen (Holy One), 794 A.D. 

23 Gunokim (Snow Father), 816 A.D. 

24 Mangipitak (Big Teeth), 826 A.D. 
2S 01umapi (Tally Maker), 837 A.D. 



Taguachi 26 followed this one 
Shiver-With-Cold the records call him. 
To the Corn Land, Minihaking 
Taguachi went (to learn it, 
Learn the ways of growing food). 


Huminiend 27 became the next King 
Cornbreaker the records named him 
For he taught people how to plant it 
(To make hominy to till the soil). 


Alkosohit, 2 ' was the next king 
He that kept, preserved his race, 
Strong Man was the name they gave him 
He was useful to the race. 


Salt Man, was the next King 
Shiwapi 29 maker of the white sand "Sikey" 
(He taught the art to our forefathers 
Never users of this snake food). 

28 Taguachi (Shiver With Cold), 847 A.D. 
27 Huminiend (Corn Breaker), 859 A.D. 

2S Alkosohit (Keeper-Preserver, "Strong Man"), 869 A.D. 

29 Shiwapi (Saltman), 880 A.D. 



Dried-up-one, he they call Penkwonwi 30 
Little-One the records call him 
Was the next king after Salt Man. 
(He was old and wise was this one) . 


There was no rain, there was no corn 
(For the Great Drouth came upon the land) 
Our people were far from the sea shore. 
He led us eastward where at least was 
Good buffalo land near a Cave Place 
Where was found a fine prairie 
Where at last we fell to eating. 


After Penkwonwi came the tired one 

He they called much Fatigued, — 

In the records Wekwochella 31 

And after that one, Chingalsuwi 32 

He the Stiff One (straight and narrow). 


Then was one still worse than Stiff One 
Called "Reprover" by the people. 
Kwitikwond 33 whom they hated 

30 Penkwonwi (Dried Up Man or "Little One"), 890 A.D. 

31 Wenkwochella (Fatigued), 890 A.D. 

32 Chingalsuwi (Stiff One), 902 A.D. 

33 Kwitikwond (Reprover), 923 A.D. 


To obey whom were unwilling. 
Many left him, being angry, 
Many young one secretly 
Left and went to eastward. 

But the wise ones stayed, (removed him) 
Making Makoholend 34 King, 
Makoholend called the Loving One. 
Under him were all united 
All were friends with this great King. 


The tribes now settled on Yellow River 35 
Settled again on the Great Meadow 
(Where the traders all foregathered 
From the furthest water pathways 
In the land that we had conquered). 
Here was land for corn and foodstuff 
Without a stone in all the meadow. 


All were friends then and the King was 

Tamanend 36 that great one known as 

Affable, the Nokohatami 

First of that illustrious name he. 

(Tammany the Nektam 

So the pale-face would have called it). 

34 Makoholend (Loving One), 933 A.D. 

35 Yellow River, la. (Wisawana) ; Madawasin (Great Meadow). 
60 Tamanend (Tammany I, "Affable"), 946 A.D. 



All Lenape were friends of Tammany 
All the tribes came to support him. 
(Once again Algonkin people 
Had a strong, united League there). 


Strong Buffalo, Maskansisil, 37 
Was King after this good one, 
He was king and pipebearer. 
Machigokloos, 38 Big Owl followed, 
Wapicholen, 39 White Bird followed him 
Wingenund, 40 the Willing One 
Next was king, he was priest too 
And made feasts so all were happy, 
(Made the festivals of peacetime 
For the Mide and the people). 


Lapawin, 41 the whitened one, 
Called "Rich Again" in the record 
Next was King (and all were happy). 
The Painted One, or Wallama 42 
Followed next; Waptipatit 43 
White Fowl followed him. 

37 Maskansisil (Strong Buffalo, also Pipe Bearer), 956 A.D. 

38 Machigokloos (Big Owl), 967 A.D. 

39 Wapicholen (White Bird), 977 A.D. 

40 Wingenund (Mindful or "Willing One"), 989 A.D. 

41 Lapawin (Rich Again), 999 A.D. 

42 Wallama (Painted One), 1010 A.D. 

43 Waptipatit (White Fowl), 1020 A.D. 



Then came war, both North and Southward. 
Father Wolf, Wise-in-Council 
Was the King — wise in warfare, 
Knowing how to fight all foemen. 
He killed Strong-Stone 
(Chieftain of the Assinapi). 


Tumaokan, 44 Father Wise Wolf 

Was succeeded by another, 

Like himself, called Messisuwi, 45 

Always-Ready-One who made war on 

Snakes to southward, Akowini. 

(They were western "Sioux" and "Adders") 


Chitanwulit, 46 Strong-and-Good-One, 
Next was King and fought with sorrow, 
With the Northern people — sadly. 


Alokuwi 47 next was King there, 

He fought Tawas who made war on 

Alokuwi called the Lean One. 

(War with Ottawa, war with Brothers 

Of the Great Algonkin League. 

War with members of the Menalting 

Where all smoked on peace and war). 

44 Tumaokan (Wolf Father), "Wolf Wise in Council," 1032 A.D. 

45 Messisuwi (Always Ready One), 1042 A.D. 

46 Chitanwulit, 1053 A.D. 

47 Alokuwi (Lean One), 1063 A.D. 

Opekasit 4 * now was King there 
Opekasit, Eastern-Looking, 
Some said this one was "Oppossum Like." 
He was sad at so much warfare. 
"Let us leave," said Opekasit, 
"Let us travel toward the sunrise. 
"There are eastward lands to live in, 
"Here are foes that are too many." 
(Here were Brothers in the Council 
Oppekasit loath to fight was, 
Rather would he lead one Brother, 
Leave the other at Headquarters, 
Gaining Peace and gaining sorrow, 
Gaining new lands for the people). 

They divided at Fish River, 
Nemasipi they agreed at, 
One to stay and one to eastward. 
(The Lenape and Opekasit 
Left the Tawa in possession, 
Called them "Lazy" in the records 
Since they joined not in the venture 
For new lands so far to eastward.) 

Yagawanend, 49 Cabin Man, succeeded 
Opekasit as the leader. 
Eastern lands (across the waters) 
Were possessed by Talligewi. 
(There were Talaga in that country 
Toward whose fertile plains they traveled). 

48 Opekasit (East Looking) "Opossum Like," 1075 A.D. 

49 Yagawanend, "Cabin Man" (Hut Maker), 1085 A.D. 



Chitanitis, 60 Strong Friend next was King 

And much desired the rich land eastward. 

Some Lenape advanced and entered 

(Thinking they would settle there) . 

The King of Talega however 

(Seeing how great numbers soon would come) 

Attacked the settlers, killed some of them. 


Fury filled all in our armies, 
"War" they cried. Of one mind all were. 
"War and war," they all demanded. 
To the North were friends and allies, 
They were sent for to be helpers. 
Talamatan's (Hurons) came to join us. 


Kinechepend, 51 called the Sharp One, 
Next as king. He was the leader 
And pipe-bearer to the foe 
Across the river; carried war 
Beyond the river to the foeman. 
All rejoiced to fight those battles, 
Killing, conquering Talega towns there. 

50 Chitanitis (Strong Friend), 1096 A.D. 

51 Kinechepend (Sharp One), Talega War, 1106 A.D. 



Pimikhasuwi'" the Stirrer 

Next was king and fought with vigor. 

But the Talega defenses 

Were too strong for easy taking. 


Fire Builder the next King 
Opened paths by shooting firebrands. 
Tenchekentit' 3 knew how firebrands 
Could be made to burn their forts up. 
Many forts and towns were conquered 
By the clever Tenchekentit. 


Paganchihilla,' 4 Breaker in Pieces 
Was the great fullfiller now. 
He was King and won the war there, 
Driving Southward all the Talega. 


Hattanwulaton 55 now was peace King. 
"He-has-possession" say the records. 
"He-has-pleasure" — name they call him. 
All the armies now rejoice there 
For the mighty victory won. 

52 Pimikhasuwi (Stirrer), 1118 A.D. 

58 Tenchekentit, "Fire Builder" (Path Opener), 1128 A.D. 
S4 Paganchilla (Great Fulfiller), "Breaker in Pieces," 1139 A.D. 
55 Hattonwulaton (He Has Possession) "He Has Pleasure," 1150 A.D. 



Lenape were settled on the new land 

Below the Sea, Below the Great Lakes. 

The Talamatan, friends and allies 

Were given lands North of the Great Lakes. 

(Were settled North of Lake Superior 

In the lands of the Algonkins). 


Gunitakan, 56 Not-Always-Friend (to 
Those who questioned his decisions) 
Now was King. The records call him 
"Long-and-Mild." (A just judge he, 
Thought the people that he ruled o'er. 
There were some though disagreeing. 
The Talamatan North of the Great Lakes 
Had no part of what was conquered.) 
Those not friends of Attabchinitis 
Conspired against him — but in secret. 


Linniwulamen, 57 next was King there 
Truthful Man, said what he thought, he! 
The Talamatans waged an open warfare 
(Because he bluntly spoke against them, 
Refused to change the spoils division). 

56 Gunitakan (Long and Mild), 1162 A.D. 

07 Linniwulamen, "Truthful Man" (Truthteller), 1172 A.D. 



Shakagapewi, 58 the Just-and-True one 
Next was king — subdued the Hurons, 
Made the Talamatan to Tremble. 
(Once as allies, these were rebels. 
Now subdued and forced to bow them). 

End Book IV 


Book V. To the Sea 


All was peaceful, long ago there 

In the land of Talega 

(In the Valley of Ohio 

Ancient Home of the Moundbuilder 

Talligewi whom we conquered, 

Sioux and Cherokee together). 

Tamaganend, 59 called Pipe-Bearer 
Was the King and At White River 
(In the place whites call Indiana. 

58 Shakagapewi, "Just and Upright" (Just and True), 1183 A.D. 

59 Tamaganend (Pipe Bearer), 1193 A.D. 



Wapashuwi, 60 White Lynx next was King there 

In his time much corn was planted; 

Wulitshinik 61 then succeeded, 

Good and Strong the record names him, 

Population was increasing 

And the nation growing stronger. 

Lekihiten, 62 the Recorder 
Painted on the Walam Olum 
Brought the Red Score up to present. 

Kolachuisen, 63 Pretty Blue Bird 
Followed him and crops in his time 
Were abundant at the harvest. 

Pematalli, 64 Always-There, he 
Ruled when many towns were. 
(People of the Lenni Lenape 
Flocked from west and other quarters 
And the villages were increasing). 

80 Wapashuwi (White Lynx), 1205 A.D. 

61 Wulitshinik (Good and Strong), 1215 A.D. 

62 Lekihiten (Recorder), 1237 A.D. 

63 Kolachuisen, "Pretty Bluebird" (Fine Bluebird), 1247 A.D. 
6 * Pematalli (Always There), 1258 A.D. 



Pepomahenem, 65 next was King there 
Paddler-up-Stream so they called him. 
Everywhere he was exploring 
(Looking to the common welfare). 

Tankowon 86 the modest next King, 

Little Cloud by name and omen. 

Many bands of younger warriors 

Left the country for adventures. 

The Nanticokes 67 went South at this time 

(In Maryland long afterward they were) 

And Southward went the Shawnee people. 


Big Beaver, Kitchi-Tamak, 68 
Was the next King, his headquarters 
Were at White Lick, Wapahoning 
(In the north-east of Ohio 
At the edge of Talaga nearly) t 


Came now one we called the Prophet, 
Onowutok, 89 named the Seer. 
He was highly praised by all men 
(Holy priest with powers of vision 
For the welfare of his people). 

66 Pepomahenem, "Paddler Up Stream" (Navigator), 1268 A.D. 

66 Tankowon (Little Cloud), 1280 A.D. 

67 Nanticokes Shawnees. See V-32. 
88 Kitchi Tamak (Big Beaver), 1290 A.D. 

69 Onowutok, "The Seer" (Prophet), 1301 A.D. 



To the west he went and southwest, 
All the western villages he went to. 
(With a foresight he was knowing 
What the future need might be; 
Binding all by ties together 
That the Kingdom might be stronger). 


Pawanami 70 of the Turtles 

Called Rich Man Down the River 

Next was king and moved headquarters 

To the Talaga River flowing 

On the Talega southern border. 


Much war came unto the next King, 
Lokwelend, 71 he was called the Walker. 
Again the Tawa and the Stone Men 
And the Northerners waged a warfare. 
(These were rebels as before when 
West and East were made divisions 
Of the League there at Fish River). 


Mokolomokom 72 was the next King, 
Hunting foes in boats on rivers. 
Grandfather-of-Boats was what they called him 
For these "snaking" expeditions. 

70 Pawanami, "Rich Man Down River," Talega River, 1311 A.D. 

71 Lokwelend, "Walker," 1323 A.D. 

72 Mokolomokom (Grandfather of Boats), 1333 A.D. 



Winelowich 73 or Snow-Hunter 
Also kept the Northland peaceful 
He succeeded Makolomokom. 


Linkwekinuk 74 moved headquarters 

In the East to Talagachukang, 

To the Mountains of the Talega 

Went this King called Look About Him. 


Wapala-Wikwan 75 the "East Villager" 
Followed him and moved still further 
'Til he found and told the people 
He was east of Talega borders. 
"Ho, a large land and a long land 
Is this land I now am taking. 
'Tis a rich land, Snakes don't own it, 
Full of good things is this east land." 


Gikenopalat 78 was the next King, 
Him they named Great Fighter. He 
Moved his forces toward the northward 
Getting nearer to the salt sea. 

73 Winelowich (Snow Hunter), 1344 A.D. 

7 * Linkwekinuk, "Look Out" (Alert), 1354 A.D. 

75 Wapalawikwan (East Villager), 1366 A.D. 

76 Gikenopalat, "Great Fighter" (Great Warrior), 1376 A.D. 



On the river Saskwihanang 
(Called by whites the Susquehanna) 
Hanaholend, 77 River Loving 
Made headquarters of the Kingdom. 


Growing Fat the next King was there 
In this new, fine Winikaking; 
In this Sassafras-Land of plenty 
Gattawisa 78 served his people. 


Now all hunters reached the seacoast 
(Where there ancestors once lived) 
Once again made strings of wampum 
On the sun-salt sea board there. 


Makiawip, 79 the Red Arrow 
Next was King and he returned to 
The villages on the Susquehanna. 
Wolomenap, 80 Painted-Man he, 
Went back to the Mighty Waters, 
Back to Maskekitong the Main stream 
(Looking to the common welfare 
Of both east and west divisions). 

77 Hanaholend (River Loving), 1387 A.D. 

78 Gatta Wisa, "Becoming Fat" (Growing Fat), 1397 A.D. 

79 Makiawip (Red Arrow), 1410 A.D. 
80 Wolomenep (Painted Man), 1424 A.D. 



At this time (from the Ohio) 

Moved the Wolves and Easterners 81 Northeast. 

War was brewing. Wulitpallat, 82 

King called Good Fighter led the army, 

Went against the northern Mengwae 83 

Went against the Lynx people too. 

(Iroquois now are those Mengwae, 

Eries are the Lynx today). 

Both the peoples, Lynx and Mengwae 

Trembled at the war we brought to them. . 


But again an Affable 
Arose to make Peace instead of warfare 
Tamanend 84 (the second Tammany) 
Was a great one, all men loved him. 
All the nations now made treaties, 
All were friends, all united. 


Kitchi-Tamak, 85 Great Beaver 
Next was king and he remained in 
Sassafras Land, but the next one 
Wapahakey, 86 called White-Body 
Chose the Shore for his headquarters. 

81 Easterners — "Wapanand," Wabanaki or So. Abanaki. Wolves- 
Minsi, and Mohican ancestors. 

82 Wulitpallat, "Good Fighter" (Good Warrior), 1438 A.D. 

83 Mengwae (Lynx). 

8 ±Tamanend (II), (Affable), 1451 A.D. 

85 Kitchitamak II, "Great Beaver" (Big Beaver II), 1463 A.D. 

86 Wapahakey (White Body), 1476 A.D. 



Elangomel," 7 the Peacemaker 

Did much good, when he was King 

Followed by that Pitinumen 88 

Not so good for his mistakes. 

"He Makes Mistakes" was what they named him, 

Always coming from somewhere 

(But not quite sure of what he wanted) . 


At this time the Whites 89 were coming. 
On the eastern sea we saw them. 
(Pitinumen saw the whites or meant to 
Rushing to the sea for — what for?). 


Makelomush, 90 Much-Honored, 
Next was King, our people prospered. 
He was followed by Wulakeningus. 91 


This one was well named "Well-Praised." 
For Wulakiningus fought the Southerners. 
Forced to combat the Otali 92 
And their allies the Koweta, 

87 Elangorael (Peacemaker), 1487 A.D. 

88 Pitinumen, "He Makes Mistakes," 1+98 A.D. 

89 Whites (Cabot), 1498 A.D. 

90 Makelomush (Much Honored), 1507 A.D. 

91 Wulakeningus (Well Praised), 1516 A.D. 

92 War vs. Otali and Koweta. 


(Well-Praised carried war to 

These Talega mountaineers 

With their Muskohegan allies 

Carried war to Cherokee 

And Creek alike and was successful). 


Now came King Wapagumoshki, 93 
Called White-Otter (wise was this one, 
For he foresaw future troubles 
And prepared by making allies). 
Wapagamoshki made a treaty 
With the Hurons, Talamatans, 
Ancient Friends (and once the foeman 
After war with Talega) . 


White-Horn, Wapashum, 94 next King 

Visited the Talega in the West 

(Cherokee still on the Ohio. 

'Twas a peaceful visit that time). 

White-Horn too, went to these others 

(Of the Algonkin peoples they) 

To the Hilini, 95 to the Shawnee and Kanawhas. 


Nitispayat 96 was the next King, 

He continued peaceful friendships. 

93 Wapagumoshki (White Otter), 1525 A.D. 

94 Wapashum (White Horn), 153+ A.D. 

95 Hilini, Shawnee, Kanawha. See IV-9. 

96 Nitispayat, "Coming-as-Friend" (Friend Maker or Friend 
Comer), 1543 A.D. 


To the Great Lakes this one travelled 
Seeing friends and visiting all 
The children of the Lenape People. 


Pakimitzen 97 followed next there 
("On the Shore" the old home place) 
Keeping up the work of the last King, 
"Coming-As-Friend" or Nitispayat. 
Pakimitzin, "Cranberry-Eater" 
Made the treaty with the Tawa 
(Welcomed back those ancient rebels) 


Lowaponakan 98 the North-Walker 
At Niagara made his quarters 
Lived at Ganshowenik (with the 
Newly allied Talamatan 
Near the friendly Ottawa-Tawas) . 


Tashawinso 99 the "Slow Gatherer" 
Next was King at "Shayabing" 
Which is Shore-place on the Salt Sea 
(Which the place-face calls New Jersey) 
His the task to slowly gather 
All the tribes of the Lenape 
Now on eastern seacoast living. 

97 Pakimitzen (Cranberry Eater), 1552 A.D. 

98 Lowaponskan (North Walker), 1561 A.D. 

99 Tashawinso, "Slow Gatherer," 1570 A.D. 



Now was time to reassemble 
All the old division eastward 
And reorganize in Grand Council 
Into three clans 100 that they wanted. 
Unamini were the Turtles 
Minsimini were the Wolf Clan 
(Ancient West and Southern Stations 
Of the first Algonkin League). 


Chikimini was the third clan, 
Called the "Turkeys." (They were 
Eagles, some, and Beavers too?) 


Epalahchund 101 now became king 
(And he failed with preparation 
That was made for the occasion) 
He fought Mengwae, Iroquois men. 
"Man who Fails" the record called him. 


Langomuwi, 102 He-Is-Friendly 
Fought the Mengwae too and scared them 
(So the record runs, but meaning 
"He-Is-Friendly" made a peace there). 

100 Unami (Turtles); Minsi (Wolves), Chikimini (Turkeys). 

101 Epalachund, "Man Who Fails" (Failure), 1579 A.D. 
102 Langomuwi (He Is Friendly), 1588 A.D. 



Wangomend, 103 ("Saluted") he had foemen 

In the mountains and Ohio. 

Over yonder in Scioto 

On the river of Ohio 

There were foes and in the Mountains. 


Otalawi now were giving trouble 

In the Allegheney Mountains 

Those Cherokee behind the mountains. 

(On Scioto were the Shawnees, 

No longer friendly with the League there. 

They were southern and a nation 

That had helped to Conquer Talega. 

Here their home they said whenever 

They desired it — League or no League). 


White Crab, Wapachikis 104 
Was the next king after this one. 
He lived on the shores of Jersey 
And was called friend of the Shore. 


Nanachihat, 105 the "Watcher" 
Was the last King of the Red Score, 
(There were others, but warfare 
Closed the record at this place). 

103 Wangomend (Saluted), 1597 A.D. 
in4 Wapachikis (White Crab), 1607 A.D. 
103 Nanachihat (Watcher), 1617 A.D. 



"Watcher" was a seaward looker, 

In his time the White Men came 

Both from the South and from the Northward. 

They caused people to greatly wonder. 

They were friendly and had great things. 

(Ships and guns that changed the course of 

Indiana life and civilization 

On the land where they were living). 


Delaware Text 

"Bundle" I 

1. Sayewi talli wemiguma wokgetaki. 

2. Hakung kwelik owanaku wakyutalli kitani- 

3. Sayewis hallemiwis nolemiwi elemanik kitani- 
towit essop. 

4. Sohalawak kwelik hakik owak awasagamak. 

5. Sohalawak gishuk nipahum alankwak. 

6. Wemi Sohalawak yulik yuchaan. 

7. Wichowagan kshakan moshakwat kwelik 

8. Opeleken manimenak delsinepit. 

9. Lappinup kitantowit manito manitoak. 

1 0. Owiniwak angelitawiwak chicankwak wemiwak. 

11. Wtenk manito jinwis lennowak mukom. 

12. Milap netami gaho owini gaho. 


13. Namesik milap tulpewik milap awesik milap 
cholensak milap. 

14. Makimani shak sohalawak makowini nakowak 

15. Sohalawak uchewak sohalawak pungusak. 

16. Nitisak wemi owini W'delsinewuap. 

17. Kiwis wuwand wishimanitoak essopak. 

18. Nijini netami lannowak nigoha netami okwewi 

19. Gattaminnetami mitzi nijini nantine. 

20. Wemi winginamenep wemiksinelendanep wemi 

21. Shukand elikimi mekenikink wakon powako 

22. Mattalogas pallalogas maktaton owagon pay- 
atchik yutali. 

23. Maktapan payat wihillan payat mboaganpayat. 

24. Wonwemi wiwunch kamik atak kitahikan neta- 
maki epit. 


1. Wulamo maskanako anup lennowak makowini 

2. Maskanako shingalusit nijini essopak shawa- 
lendamep ekan shingalan. 

3. Nishawi palliton nishawi machiton nishawi 
matta lungundowin. 

4. Mattapewi wiki nihanlowit mekwazoan. 

5. Maskanako gishi penauwelendamep lennowak 
owini palliton. 

6. Nakowa petonep amangam petonep akope- 
hella petonep. 


7. Pehella pehella pohoka pohoka eshohok esho- 
hok paliton paliton. 

8. Tulapit menapit Nanaboush maskaboush owini- 
mokom linowimokom. 

9. Gishikinpommixin tulagishatten lohxin. 

10. Owini linowi wemoltin pehella gahani pom- 
mixin nahiwi tatali tulapin. 

11. Amanganek makdopannek alendyumek mitzi- 

12. Manitodasin mokol wichemap palpal payat 
payat wemichemap. 

13. Nanaboush nanaboush wemimokom winimokom 
linnimokom tulamokom. 

14. Linapima tulapima tulapewi tapitawi. 

15. Wishanem tulpewi payaman tulpewi poniton 

16. Kshipehelen penkwihilen kwamipokho sita- 
walikho maskanwagan palliwi palliwi. 


1. Pehella wtenklennapewi tulapewini poakwiken 
wolikgun wittank akpinep. 

2. Topanakpinep wineu akpinep kshakan akpinep 
thupin akpinep. 

3. Lowankwimink wulaton wtakan tihill kelik 
meshatang siliewak. 

4. Chintanes sin powallessin peyachik wikhichik 
(elowichik) pokwihil. 

5. Eluwichitanesit eluwi takauwesit elowichiksit 
elowichik delsinewo. 

6. Lowaniwi napaniwi shawaniwi wunkeniwi elo- 
wichik apakachik. 


7. Lumowaki lowanaki tulpanaki elowaki tula- 
piwi linapiwi. 

8. Wemiako yagawan tendki lakkawelendam 
nakapowa wemi owenluen atam. 

9. Akhokink wapaneu wemoltin palliaal kitelen- 
dam aptelendam. 

10. Pechimuin shakowen nungihillan lusasaki 
pikihil pokwihil akomenaki. 

11. Nihillipewin komelendam lowaniwi wemiten 
chihillen weniaken. 

12. Namesuagipek pokhapokhapek guneunga wap- 
lanewa ouken waptuwemi ouken. 

13. Amokolon nallahemen agunouken pawasinep 
napasinep akomenep. 

14. Wihlamok kicholen luchundi wematam akomen 

15. Witehen wemiluen wemaken nihillen. 

16. Nguttichin lowaniwi nguttachin wapaniwi 
agumunk topanapek wulliton epannek. 

17. Wulelemil w'shakuppek wemopannek hakh- 
sinipek kitahikan pokhakhopek. 

18. Tellenchen kitta pakkinillawi wemoltin guti- 
kuni nillawi akomen wapanawaki nillawi ponskan pon- 
skan wemi olini. 

19. Lowanapi wapanapi shawapani lanewapi takak- 
wapi tumewapi elowapi powatapi wilawapi okwisapi 
danisapi allumapi. 

20. Wemipayat guneunga shinaking wunkenapi 
chanelendam payaking alloelendam kowiyey tulapaking. 


1. Wulamo linapioken manup shinaking. 

2. Wapallananewa sittamaganat yukepecchi we- 


3. Akhomenis michihaki wellaki kundokanup. 

4. Angomelchik wlowichik elmusichik menalting. 

5. Wemilo kolawil sakima lissilma. 

6. Akhopayat kihillalend akhopokho askiwaal. 

7. Showihilla akhowemignadhaton mashipokhing. 

8. Wtenkolawil shinaking sakimanep wapagokhos. 

9. Wtenk nekama sakimanep janotowi enolowin. 

10. Wtenk nekama sakimanep chilili shawaniluen. 

1 1. Wokenapi nitaton wullaton apakchikton. 

12. Shawaniwaen chilili wapaniwaen tamakwi. 

13. Akolaki shawanaki kitshinaki shabiyaki. 

14. Wapanaki namesaki pemipaki sisilaki. 

15. Wtenk chilili sakimanep ayamek weminilluk. 

16. Chikonapi akhonapi makatapi assinapi. 

17. Wtenk ayamek tellen sakimak machi tonanup 

18. Wtenk nellamawi sakimanep langundowi akol- 

19. Wtenk nekama sakimanep tasukamend shaka- 

20. Wtenk nekama sakimanep pamaholend wulo- 

21. Sagimawtenk matemik sagimawtenk pilsohalin. 

22. Sagimawtenk gunokeni sagimawtenk mangi- 

23. Sagimawtenk olumapi leksahowen sohalowak. 

24. Sagimaktenk taguachi shawaniwaen minihak- 

25. Sakimawtenk huminiend minigeman sohalgol. 

26. Sakimawtenk alkosohit sakimachik apendawi. 

27. Sakimawtenk shiwapi sakinawtenk penkwonwi. 

28. Attasokelan attaminin wapaniwaen italissipek. 

29. Oligonunk sisilaking nallimetzin kolakwaming. 


30. Wtenk penkwonwi wekwochella wtenk nekama 

31. Wtenk nekama kwitikwond slangelendam atta- 

32. Wundanushkin wapanickan allendyachik kemi- 

33. Gunehunga wetatamowi makoholend saki- 
malapon wemi nitis wemi takawikan sakimakichwon. 

34. Wisawana lappi mini madawasin. 

35. Weminitis tamanend sakimanep nekohatami. 

36. Eluwiwulit matamend wemi linapi nitis payat. 

37. Wtenk wulitma maskansisil sakimanep w'tama- 

38. Machigokloos sakimanep waphicholen saki- 

39. Wingenund sakimanep powatenep gentika- 

40. Lapawin sakimanep wallama sakimanep. 

41. Waptipatit sakimanep lapi lowashawa. 

42. Wewoattan menatting tumaokan sakimanep. 

43. Nitanonep wemi palliton maskansini nihillinep. 

44. Messissuwi sakimanep akowini pallitonep. 

45. Chitanwulit sakimanep lowanuski pallitonepit. 

46. Alokuwi sakimanep towakon pallitonep. 

47. Opekasit sakimanep sakhelendam pallitonepit. 

48. Wapagishik yuknahokluen makeluhuk wapa- 

49. Tsehepicken nemasipi nolandowak gunehunga. 

50. Yagawanend sakimanep tallegewi wapawulla- 

51. Chitanitis sakimanep wapawaki gotatainen. 

52. Wapalendi pomisinep talagawil allendhilla. 

53. Mayoksuwi wemilowi palliton palliton. 

54. Talamatan nitilowan payatchik wemiten. 


55. Kinehepend sakimanep tamaganat sipakgamen. 

56. Wulatonwi makelima pallihilla talegawik. 

57. Pimokhasuwi sakimanep wsamimaskan tale- 

58. Tenchekentit sakimanep wemilat makelinik. 

59. Paganchihilla sakimanep shawananewak wemi 

60. Hattanwulaton sakimanep wingelendam wemi 

61. Shawanipekis sakimanep gunehungind lowani- 
pekis talamatanitis. 

62. Attabchinitis gishelendam gunitakan saki- 

63. Linniwulamen sakimanep pallitonep talamatan. 

64. Shakagapewi sakimanep nungwi talamatan. 


1. Wemilangundo wulamo talli talegaking. 

2. Tamaganend sakimanep wapalaneng. 

3. Wapushuwi sakimanep kelitgemen. 

4. Wulitshinik sakimanep makdopannik. 

5. Lek/zzhitin sakimanep wallamolumen. 

6. Kolachuisen sakimanep makeliming. 

7. Pematalli sakimanep makelinik. 

8. Pepomahenem sakimanep makelaning. 

9. Tankawon sakimanep makeleyachik. 

10. Nentigowe shawanowi shawanaking. 

1 1. Kitchitamak sakimanep wapahoning. 

12. Onowutok awolagan wunkenahep. 

13. Wunpakitonis wunshawononis wunkiwikwo- 

14. Pawanami sakimanep taleganah. 

15. Lokwelend sakimanep makpalliton. 


16. Lappi towako lappi sinako lappi lowako. 

17. Mokolomokom sakimanep mokolakolin. 

18. Winelowich sakimanep lowishkakiang. 

19. Linkwekinuk sakimanep talakachukang. 

20. Wapalawikwan sakimanep waptalegawing. 

21. Amangaki amigaki wapakisinep. 

22. Mattakohaki wapawaki mawulitinol. 

23. Gikenopalat sakimanep pekochilowan. 

24. Saskwihanang hanaholend sakimanep. 

25. Gattawisa sakimanep winikaking. 

26. Wemi lowichik gishikshawipek lappi kichipek. 

27. Makiawip sakimanep lapihaneng. 

28. Wolomanep sakimanep maskekitong. 

29. Wapanand tumewand waplowan. 

30. Wulit pallat sakimanep piskwilowan. 

3 1 . Mahongwi pungelika wemi nungwi. 

32. Lappi tamanend sakimanepit wemi langundit. 

33. Wemi nitis wemi takwiken sakima kichwon. 
34.-5. Omitted in Original Mss. 

36. Kichitamak sakimanep winakununda. 

37. Wapahakey sakimanep Sheyabian. 

38. Elangomel sakimanep makeliwulit. 

39. Pitinumen sakimanep unchihillen. 

40. Wonwihil wapekunchi wapsipayat. 

41. Makelomush sakimanep wolatnamen. 

42. Wulakeningus sakimanep shawanipalat. 

43. Otaliwako akowetako ashki palliton. 

44. Wapagamoshki sakimanep lamatanitis. 

45. Wapashum sakimanep talegawunkik. 

46. Mahiliniki mashawoniki makonowiki. 

47. Nitispayat sakimanep kipemapekan. 

48. Wemiamik weminitik kiwikhotan. 

49. Pakimitzen sakimanep tawanitip. 

50. Lowaponskan sakimanep ganshowenik. 


51. Tashawinso sakimanep Shayabing. 

52. (bis) Unamini minsimini chikimini. 

53. Epalahchund sakimanep mahingwipallat. 

54. Langumuwi sakimanep mahongwichamen. 

55. Wangomend sakimanep ikalawit. 

56. Otaliwi wasiotowi shingalusit. 

57. Wapachikis sakimanep shayabinitis. 

58. Nanachihat sakimanep peklinkwekin. 

59. Wonwihil lowashawa wapayachik. 

60. Langomuwak kitohatewa ewinikiktit. 


Note 1. "Miquon," Their Elder Brother, was 
Perm's name among the Delawares. 

— Indian Biography, Vol. II, pg. 120. 
B. B. Thatcher, 1832. 
Penn's personal name among the Delaware was 
"Onas," this word signifying a pen. Quakers were the 
"Children of Onas." 

Note 2. "Yanokies," a name applied to New Eng- 
enders by the natives, meaning "silent men" and from 
the Mais-Tchusaeg or Massachusetts language (hence 
Algonkin) according to Washington Irving in his 
"Knickerbockers History of New York," page 120. 
Others have derived the name from Iroquoian. The 
British made fun of the name because it was of native 
origin and are said to have been first to set it to an old 
tune and jingle. The Americans accepted the challenge 
and proudly bore it as in keeping with their Indian 

Note 3. "White Eyes," and Congress. "The journal 
of December, 1775, records the interview of Congress 
with the father" — Captain White Eyes. 
— Thatcher's Indian Biography, Vol. II, page 135. 

"Resolved, That Mr. Morgan (Tamanend prob- 
ably) be empowered and requested to continue the care 
and direction of George White Eyes for one year, and 
that the Board of the Treasury take order for the pay- 



ment of the expenses necessary to carry into execution 
the views of Congress in this respect." 

—Resolution of June 20, 1785. (Id). 

Note 4. Penn's Treaty at Sakimaxing (modern 
Shakamaxon) the place of kings, is described by his 
biographer, William Hepworth Dixon, who says West's 
picture of Penn is very unlike and gives a word picture 
of Penn's Landing with Tamanend included in both 

— "Biography of Penn," by Dixon, 
pages 212, 213. Also 199. 

Note 5. Penn's Indian Policy, described by Dixon, 
his biographer, and also, "Grahames Colonial History," 
Vol. I, page 15. 

Note 6. Tamanend III. Interesting speculation 
and research on will be found in "The Grave of Tama- 
nend," by H. C. Mercer, in "Magazine of American 
History" for June- July, 1893. 

Note 7. "Place of Caves" — The Wakon Tebee or 
burial cave here mentioned, is referred to by Jonathan 
Carver at page 63 of his journal as 30 miles below the 
Falls of St. Anthony and obviously ancient because it 
had carved inscriptions inside it and was known to the 
Indians as the place where ancient Siouan chieftains 
were buried. Arapaho and Cheyenne tradition point 
to the location as a starting point in their western 
spread from Minnesota at about the same time. The 
Arapaho northern branch retained the Calumet, ear of 
corn and Turtle figurine, as the elder or parent stem 
of the Inunaina or "our own people" (their own name 


for themselves). The southern branch became identi- 
fied with the Siksika Confederacy against the Sioux, 
through the Atsina tribe. The Cheyenne or Dzitsi-istas 
("our people") spread from Minnesota into South 
Dakota and in addition to the mention of St. Anthony's 
Falls, their tradition speaks of a River of the Turtles. 
They were an agricultural people and lived once in 
permanent houses. These two Algonkin nations, I 
think, clearly show that they were engaged in the Great 
Snake War and have some memory of the introduction 
of agriculture and the settlement at the Place of Caves 
where St. Paul and Minneapolis now stand. The Sioux 
of Carver's time admitted the Cheyenne (their name 
for the Dzitsi-itsa) occupied the upper Mississippi 
region before them. Minneapolis still has some caves. 

Note 8. Wisawana means Yellow River. It is in 
Northeastern Iowa, opposite Prairie Du Chien on the 
Eastern side of the river. This place, at which French 
and American fur traders established outposts, was 
w T idely known as an Indian market for which the Yellow 
River Valley was the camping place for tribes from the 
remotest tributaries of the Mississippi. See "Carver's 
Travels," pages 50, 51. Wisawana played an important 
role in the Black Hawk war. 

Note 9. "Nectam." In describing the Rainy River 
portion of the water road of Indians and fur trappers, 
MacKenzie mentions a trading post some four or five 
miles from the Rainy Lake's western outlet, where 
people from Montreal met those from the Athabaska 
country. On the north side of the river on a high bank 
there was a trading post and this was also the location 
the Indians told him, of the residence of the "Nectam," 


first chief or Sachem of all Algonkin tribes, inhabiting 
the different parts of the country. He is by distinction 
called Nectam, which implies personal pre-eminance. 
Here also the elders met in council to treat of war or 

— "Voyages from Montreal, Through the Continent of 
North America to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans 
in 1789 and 1793," by Alexander MacKenzie. 
Vol. I, page xciii. 
The modern "Nectam" and the term "Nekohtahami" 
of the Walam Olum as title for Tamanend I, are ob- 
viously identical. 

Note 10. Opekasit, the King who "fought in sad- 
ness," is evidently alluded to in the story Benjamin 
Sutton had from the Delawares among whom he was 
prisoner. His relation to Beattie in 1737, not only sets 
the date by Delaware count, of their arrival on the 
Delaware River, but says that there was an ancient 
King of the Lenape in the far west who divided his 
"empire" between two sons, who quarrelled about it. 
One of the sons — who could be no other than Opekasit 
— rather than fight with his brother, voluntarily went 
east with his following and the Delaware finally came 
to the Atlantic. The story despite its garbled version as 
Sutton remembered it, seems to include East Villagers' 
record too. 

Sutton and others have understood the Delaware to 
assert there were three divisions of the Lenape, one on 
the Atlantic, one East and the other West of the Missis- 
sippi. Heckewelder and others have mentioned this 
Sutton story. Its narrator evidently gave Sutton the 
expanded or detailed oration of which the mnemonic 
Walam Olum serves as a topical index as it were. 


Note 11. Fish River. The Walum Olum word is 
Nameas Sipu and obviously this is not Mississippi. One 
of the two locations mentioned in this book is probably 
correct. Personally the logical place is the one on 
Nemakan River, a small tributary of Rainy River. The 
solemnity and importance of the event, would have 
required the intervention of the Midewiwan itself. 

Note 12. Moundbuilders. As protection from high 
water, mounds seem to have had a natural development 
in the Mississippi Valley, though this is not their origin 
or chief purpose. Few of them were over four or five 
feet high and mostly for defensive earthworks, burial 
places, or residence. Some however were 90 feet or 
more high. Others of obviously symbolic and religious 
nature. The Eastern Siouans were the principle mound- 
builders of the Upper Ohio Valley so far as ceremonial 
and symbolic mounds go. The Cherokee undoubtedly 
built many of them however. The fortified mounds 
were joint work of the Talega allies. 

Algonkins held these mounds and their builders in 
some awe. The Southern Indians told early whites 
"there is fire in those mounds" of the Ohio Valley. 

This expression is very clearly explained by reference 
to the careful report on the Gordon Town Site in 
— 41st Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Here ceremonial fires were found to have been built 
at various stages of the erection of this mound in the 
center of a town estimated to have had 1250 population. 
The King's house was probably on top of it as the usual 
temple was at its base, with the only door opening on 
the mound. The fires in the mound referred to the Sun 


as symbol of the Great Spirit and the Temples were 
much like those of the Natchez ; whose King was called 
"Great Sun." DeSotos expedition encountered "Sun 
Worshippers" opposite them, across the Mississippi 
when the expedition was on the west side. The Gordon 
Town Site I should say was an ancient Siouan village. 

Note 13. Father Gravier, one of the Jesuit Fathers, 
relates that the Indians told him they knew of the 
former inhabitants of the Illinois territory where the 
Walam Olum places the Allegewi, as Akensis Indians 
and that their ancestors had driven these Akensis out so 
that they fled across the Mississippi. This is sufficient 
to identify them with the Allegewi of the Walam Olum 
and with the modern Omaha, Quapaw, Kaw and others 
who fled up the Missouri or down stream or up stream 
from its mouth. DeSoto's party encountered the 
Quapaw and perhaps other Siouan tribes then living in 
fortified towns, with mounds and cornfields "as far as 
the eye could reach," much as their ancestors had done 
east of the Mississippi. 

Note 14. Cherokees. The Talega of the Walam 
Olum. They told Kentuckians of mounds they built in 
the Upper Ohio Valley "with fire in them." See Note 
12. They helped the Mengwae reconquer the Ohio 
Valley, generally supposed to have occurred between 
1650 and 1700, though as we show elsewhere, the war 
began fifty years earlier. 

The Delaware called the Cherokee, "Kittuwa," from 
their chief war town in Georgia. This was indeed one 
of their own names for themselves. 

They fought DeSoto in 1539 together with their 
allies of the "Coweta" confederacy. They invaded 


Virginia 1658 and sought peace with the Delaware 
1768. Curiously enough this latter fact does not seem 
to have impressed our own historians as one of the prob- 
able consequences of the Algonkin League recapturing 
the Ohio Valley from the Iroquoians as they certainly 
must have done to allow Tecumseh and before him, 
Pontiac to rule it as King. History is generally silent 
as to this recapture of the ancient Talega land, because 
the whites never knew or cared anything about it. 
Instead they treated the Algonkins as mostly "subject" 
to the Iroquois and made treaties accordingly. The 
Cherokee obligingly acknowledged all Iroquois claims 
in this respect. 

Note 15. Buffalo in the Ohio Valley. The Ken- 
tucky geologist, Jillson, estimated their arrival not later 
than 1000 years ago. The Buffalo shaped the civiliza- 
tion of nations. Hodge's "Book of Indians" shows that 
they came annually into Canada, splitting north and 
south of "The Lakes" region of Winnipeg, to the west 
and never to the east of these lakes. There was the 
"Buffalo Land" of the Walam Olum before the Great 
Snake War, and doubtless one of the causes of this war. 
The Buffalo traces were followed by the Indian as the 
whites built railroads on the Indians trails first used by 
the pioneers. Agriculture could not survive in the path 
of the Buffalo. 

If Jillson is correct, the Buffalo must have been driven 
into the Ohio Valley by the Great Drouth recorded by 
the Walam Olum. 

Note 16. Talega War. A detailed account of the 
causes leading to this war, gathered from the Delaware 
themselvese, will be found in John Heckewelder's 


"History of Indian Nations," at page 144 and follow- 

The Allegewi or Tallegewi are somewhat confused 
with the Cherokee (Tsalika) and the author seems to 
suspect that Fish River (Namaes Sipu) must be the 
Mississippi, but his conclusions are not of importance 
compared with the facts gathered from the Indians, 
which corroborate the Walam Olum in every respect. 
In fact the story was but an extension of the mnemonic 
symbols of the Red Score. The Mengwae of this story 
are the Talamatan of the Rafinesque translation. They 
followed the Lenape eastward, coming to the Missis- 
sippi River somewhat higher up than did the Lenape. 
The Talega King first granted and then refused to 
allow permission for the Lenape to cross the river, 
"treacherously" killing the advance guard that did 
cross. The Mengwae were notified and came as allies 
to participate in the ensuing war. Heckewelder's ver- 
sion indicates the Mengwae were given the northern 
half of the conquered territory. As the Walam Olum 
does not seem to indicate this but, the reverse, I have 
let it stand that way. Either the translation of the 
Walam Olum is in error or Heckewelder's own conclu- 

Note 17. Fortified Towns. Good description of 
an ancient illustration may be found in "Two Prehis- 
toric Villages in Middle Tennessee," by Edward Myers. 
Vol. 41 A.B.E. The palasaded wall of posts, watling 
and adobe, with semi-circular towers every 55 feet 
corresponds with modern structures seen by the Spanish. 
The great war town of Mabilla (ancient form of 
Mobile) that De Soto destroyed, is another good refer- 
ence to study. 


Note 18. Firebuilders' discovery was how to shoot 
fire arrows into the inflamable structures of the fortified 
towns. This is still an Indian practice in later history 
down into pioneer times. 

Note 19. "Talega" that fled South in the Talega 
war included of course the Talega proper or Cherokee, 
for the South had been their home for many centuries 
while their advent into the Upper Ohio perhaps dated 
back, not so far. They are supposed to have come into 
the State of Kentucky about the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era. 

The Eastern Siouans that were driven across the 
Ohio to their kinsmen in Kentucky and Tennessee and 
among their allies the Cherokee, probably included the 
ancestors of the Catawba, Tutelo, Biloxi, Ofo, Saponi 
and various others found scattered throughout the 
South by Europeans. In some cases, like the Biloxi of 
Louisiana, they formed separate though small com- 
munities entirely surrounded by other nations. 

Note 20. Red vs. White Indians. Native tales 
concerning "white Indians" started many early his- 
torians speculating as to European visitors in America 
prior to 1492 and finally gave birth to a widely believed 
theory that the Welsh Prince Madoc had reached the 
Ohio Valley and was responsible for the "white Indians', 
who were defeated in a great war by the Algonkins. 
However, the native tales of white vs. red in this war, 
had to do with Algonkins vs. Talega (Cherokees and 
Eastern Siouans). The Siouans especially were much 
lighter in color than the swarthy Algonkins, as they are 
today. America has had as many races and colors 


within its borders in prehistoric times as any other 

The "Welsh" theory was doubtless helped consider- 
ably by the various Welshmen, like Roger Williams, 
and even Dr. Ward, who aided us to the Walam Olum 
story. Probably many Indians did know some Welsh 
words from them. Also if Prince Madoc reached 
Florida, Mexico or other southern point with his two 
expeditions, he may have introduced some Welsh words. 
But it is highly improbable that he ever knew anything 
of the Ohio. He would have had to proceed immedi- 
ately from his ship to the scene of conflict to have any 
part in it. 

Note 21. Eclipse of Sun, 1451. For discussion of 
this event and calculation of same, see Canfield's 
"Legends of the Iroquois." 

Note 22. Migrations — Charlevoix in his work on 
the origin of Indians, relates that Pere Grellon, Jesuit 
Father, encountered a Huron woman on the plains of 
Tartary, who had been sold from tribe to tribe until 
she passed from Behring Strait into Central Asia. He 
recognized her the story goes. This is cited in "Myths 
and Legends, The North American Indians," by Lewis 
Spence, 1914, and I have seen the story elsewhere. 

Also there is the story of a wampum belt among 
North American Indians, obviously telling of Spanish 
cruelties in the South, that is very ancient, and spoken 
of in several works, names of which I do not recall. 

These are good illustrations of aboriginal ability to 
get about this continent without the aid of horses or 
automobiles. Indian legends are full of adventure 
tales of heroes going to far places and coming back. 


Those acquainted with their historical land and water 
trails, would have no doubt of the quite widespread 
trading and peaceful visiting that went on before the 
arrival of Europeans. 

Note 23. Old Wampum Belt. There is a story of 
a traveller seeing Indians in the Ohio Valley with an old 
wampum belt telling the tale of strange beings of great 
cruelty in the far south. He had no doubt it came from 
either Mexico or some southern state then coping with 
the Spaniards, and marvels that such distances should 
be no bar to communication of news between the natives. 
I have lost my note on this as to authority for the story, 
though ethnologists seem to know it well. Messages 
by wampum belts seem to have been nearly as common 
to the aboriginals as letters or telegrams are with us. 
As Cherokees and Muskoki would scarcely have 
troubled to send such a message to Algonkins, we must 
assume either that the belt was sent by the Shawnee 
back to the parent body or else that it was a message to 
Iroquois from the Cherokee, their kinsmen and allies 
and probably concerned DeSoto or D'Aylon excursions 
from Florida. 

Note 24. Cross of the Mide. See Note 34. In- 
spection of the pictures of priests found in mounds, 
graves, and elsewhere, over a wide territory and among 
different aboriginal peoples, usually reveals some form 
of this cross. Modern Indians still use it. The earliest 
Spanish discovered it in Central America as well as 
North America. Missionaries supposed it evidence of 
previous influence of Christianity. However the cross 
of the four cardinal points is the most ancient sign of 
priesthood, the world over but especially in America. 


On the copper plate found in Etowah mound, 
Georgia, and now in the U. S. National Museum, is a 
picture of a priest, Siouan or Cherokee. A good en- 
graving of it is to be found in several works (Hartley 
Burr Alexander reproduces it in "Mythology of All 
Races, North American," 1916). This is very similar 
to pictures of priests or "medicine men" to be found in 
many old works relating to the Indians where the apron 
or apron-like garment sometimes has a hand on it, the 
priest bears a rattle, "medicine bag" and peace pipe or 

Note 25. Degiha Confederacy. That this arbitrary 
modern ethnological division of the Siouans who once 
lived east of the Mississippi is nearer right than might 
be supposed. It includes the Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, 
Osage and Kansa as presumably all one body long ago, 
as in fact they were. The Jesuit, Father Gravier, was 
told by the Illinois Indians that the Akensis (Siouans) 
fled across the Mississippi and there divided, some stay- 
ing on the Missouri, others going North or South. 
According to the Siouans themselves, those who went 
north were called up-stream people (Omahas) and 
who went south, down-stream people (Quapaws). lam 
inclined to think that the middle group, which has been 
classified as the Chiwere tribes, the Iowa, Oto and 
Missouri were of the same original eastern stock and 
instead of separating from the Winnebagos, the latter 
separated from them somewhere on the upper Missouri. 
The Winnebagos tradition points to their having lived 
further north than the whites found them (Winnebago 
Lake, Wisconsin) and it seems possible they may have 
been around Winnipeg Lake in Canada. It would be 
interesting if they received their name from this lake 


while they were among their conquerors. The name is 
said to mean "dirty water" and of course is not what 
they called themselves. 

Note 27. Washington Irving's description of the 
Half Moon's voyage up the Hudson is worth reading in 
this connection. He came in contact with Iroquois 
Indians and made them friendly. The Dutch settlers 
who followed shortly afterward, attacked Delaware 
Indians in Communipaw, N. J., without knowing or 
caring who they were except that they were savages. 
But the Iroquois would naturally exult over the fact 
and become even more friendly with the Dutch. 

Note 26. For Champlaine's aid to the Algonkin 
League, see "Voyages and Discoveries," by Samuel de 

Note 28. Mohawks humbled. In Jesuit Relations 
we find a story that the Algonkins "greatly humbled" 
the Iroquoian Mohawks, driving them out of New Eng- 
land in 1600. This corresponds so closely to the Walam 
Olum version of King Langomuwi "scaring" the Meng- 
wae, that it serves as a correction to the original tenta- 
tive chronology. 

What follows, bears out this view exactly. The 
Walam Olum comes to a speedy end, obviously with 
war on a large scale as the cause. King Langomuwi 
seems not to have survived his victory which he prob- 
ably did not lead in person. We find the Unami or 
Turtle Tribe, (of which he was head because the Kings 
were chosen from that tribe) moved to Indiana this 
very same year of 1600, according to modern history. 
His successor Wangomend ("Saluted") found foes 


over on the Scioto at the same time the Otali or 
Cherokee were giving trouble in the Allegheny moun- 
tains. In other words the Iroquois, Cherokees and 
Chickasaws ("Coweta") had launched their allied 
strength against the Algonkin League in a war em- 
bracing half the continent, resulting eventually in re- 
capturing the Upper Ohio Valley. 

The Unamis settled on Yellow River in Indiana, 
where they were seen afterward by the Frenchman 
— "Journal of a Voyage," by Pierre Francis Charlevoix. 

This Yellow River was probably named after the 
Wisawana of the first Tamanend. See Note 8. 

Note 29. Hochelega, the ancient capitol of the 
Wendats (Talamatans of the Walam Olum) was 
destroyed in 1601, immediately following the defeat of 
the Iroquois in New England and probably as a retalia- 
tion. According to Lescarbot, the invasion of Canada 
was undertaken by 8000 Iroquois and the country above 
the St. Lawrence was laid waste, in which condition 
Champlaine found it in 1603. 

Note 30. Coweta was a tribe, a confederacy and a 
town. Use of the word in the Walam Olum refers to 
the Confederacy, especially to the Chickasaw allies of 
the Cherokee. Whites generally regarded the "Coweta" 
as the tribes of Muskoki stock. Coweta was chief war 
town of the lower Creeks and in later history the Con- 
federacy was spoken of as the Creek Confederacy. At 
one time it seems to have embraced most if not all of the 
Muskoki race. The Natchez were included in the 
Confederacy, which fought the Spanish and later the 
English and the Americans. Coweta town was on the 


Chattahoochie River in Mississippi. The Delaware 
were friendly with the Coweta as late as 1748, accord- 
ing to J. L. Long's "Early Western Travels," Vol. 2, 
page 43. The Coweta and other tribes of which it 
claimed the advantage in age, came from west of the 
Mississippi apparently from the region of the Rockies. 
For research work on Coweta see "Religious Beliefs 
and Medical Practices of the Creek Indians," by Jno. 
R. Swanton, in 42nd Report B.A.E. 

Note 3 1 . General George Rogers Clark was told by 
a Piankashaw chief in 1782, that the last great battle 
of the war between the red and white Indians was fought 
at Sand Island, on the Ohio River, at Louisville, Ky., 
whither the remnants of the enemy (of the Algonkins) 
had fled. Thousands were killed and the bones cover- 
ing the Island were supposed to be visable at low water 
mark, though no one reports having seen them. What 
Clark and others learned of the Talega war was pretty 
fully reported in John Filson's "History of Kentucky." 
It all fits into the Walam Olum record except the specu- 
lations of the white pioneers. ... on Welsh Indians, 
Moundbuilders, etc. 

Note 32. General Anthony Wayne was called 
Black Snake probably with reference to the Black Snake 
of the mysteries of the Midewiwan mentioned in verse 
14, Book I, of the "Red Score." They were com- 
plimenting an enemy with a very powerful Manito. 





Note 33 

All Indians in the United States are now citizens 

By act of June 2, 1924, Congress conferred citizen- 
ship upon the remaining third of our Indian population, 
not already citizens. The act in no way affects the 
Indians' right to tribal property, nor are the restric- 
tions upon this property removed. 

The following information as to the present location 
of all the tribes still under government supervision, is 
furnished by the Bureau of Indian Affairs as of March, 
1934. The names of most of these tribes are modern, 
including many common terms invented by white men. 

For convenience in locating the principle nations and 
tribes descended from those mentioned in the Walam 
Olum, we have appended a list in which reference is 
made the table furnished by the Bureau of Indian 


1 . Arizona : 

a. Colorado River Agency : 

Chemehuevi, Kawia, Cocopa, Majave 



b. Fort Apache Agency : 

Chiricahua, Coyotero, Mimbreno, Mo- 
gollon Apache. 

c. Havasupai Agency : 


d. Hopi Agency: 

Hopi, Navajo. 

e. Kaibab Subagency: 

Kaibab, Paiute. 

f. Leupp Agency: 


g. Phoenix School : 

Apache, Pima. 

h. Pima Agency: 

Papago, Maricopa, Pima. 

i. San Carlos Agency: 

Arivaipa Chiricahua, Coyotero, Mim- 
breno, Mogollon, Mojave, Pinal, San 
Carlos, Tonto, Yuma Apache. 

j. Sells Agency: 

k. Southern Navajo Agency: 

1. Truxton Canon Agency: 

m. Western Navajo Agency: 
Hopi, Navajo, Paiute. 

2. California : 

a. Fort Yuma Agency: 

Cocopah, Yuma. 

b. Hoopa Valley Agency : 

Hupa, Klamath, Redwood, Saia. 


c. Mission Agency: 

Mission Indians. 

d. Sacramento Agency: 

Chukchansi, Maidu, Mewuk, Cold 
Springs, Clear Lake, Concow, Little 
Lake, Noamlaki, Pit River, Porno, 
Potter Valley, Redwood, Wailaki, Yuki, 
Paiute, Wintum, etc. 

3. Colorado: 

a. Consolidated Ute Agency: 

Capote, Moache, Wiminuche Ute. 

4. Florida : 

a. Seminole Agency: 

5. Idaho: 

a. Couer d'Alene Agency: 

Couer d'Alene, Kalispel, Kutenai, Spo- 

b. Fort Hall Agency: 

Bannock, Shoshoni. 

c. Fort Lapwai Agency: 

Nez Perce. 

6. Iowa : 

a. Sac and Fox Sanatorium: 

Potawatomi, Winnebago, Sac and Fox of 
the Mississippi. 

7. Kansas: 

Haskell Institute 

(Potawatomi Subagency) : 


Chippewa, Munsee, Iowa, Kickapoo, Sac 
and Fox of Missouri, Prairie Band of 

8. Michigan: 

a. Mackinac Subagency: 

L'Anse and Vieux Desert Band of Chip- 
pewa of Lake Superior, Ontonagon Band 
of Chippewa of Lake Superior, scattered 
bands of Ottawa and Chippewa. 

9. Minnesota: 

a. Consolidated Chippewa Agency: 


b. Pipestone Agency: 

Mdewakanton Sioux. 

c. Red Lake Agency: 

Red Lake and Pembina Chippewa. 

10. Mississippi: 

a. Choctaw Agency : 

1 1 . Montana : 

a. Blackfeet Agency: 

Blackfeet, Blood, Piegan. 

b. Crow Agency: 


c. Flathead Agency: 

Flathead, Kutenai. 

d. Fort Balknap Agency: 

Gros Ventre, Assiniboin. 

e. Fort Peck Agency: 

Assiniboin, Brule, Santee, Teton, Hunk- 
papa, Yanktonai Sioux. 


f. Rocky Boy's Agency : 

Rocky Boy's Band. 

g. Tongue River Agency: 

Northern Cheyenne. 

12. Nebraska: 

a. Santee Subagency: 

Santee Sioux. 

b. Ponca Subagency: 

Yankton Sioux, Ponca. 

c. Winnebago Agency : 

Omaha, Winnebago. 

13. Nevada: 

a. Carson School : 

Paiute, Shoshoni. 

b. Moapa River Subagency: 

Chemehuevi, Kaibab, Paiute, Shivwits. 

c. Walker River Agency: 


d. Western Shoshone Reservation : 

Paiute, Shoshoni. 

14. New Mexico: 

a. Eastern Navajo Agency : 


b. Jicarilla Agency: 

Jicarilla Apache. 

c. Mescalero Agency: 

Mescalero and Mimbreno Apache 

d. Northern Navajo Agency: 


e. Santa Fe School Jurisdiction: 



f. Southern Pueblo Agency: 


g. Zuni Agency : 


15. New York: 

a. New York Agency : 

Cayuga, Oneida, Onodaga, Seneca, Tus- 
carora, St. Regis. 

16. North Carolina: 

a. Cherokee Agency: 

17. North Dakota: 

a. Fort Berthold Agency: 

Arikara, Gros Ventre, Mandan. 

b. Fort Totten Agency : 

Assiniboin, Cuthead, Santee, Sisseton, 
Yankton, Wahpeton Sioux. 

c. Standing Rock Agency: 

Blackfeet, Hunkpapa, Upper and lower 
Yanktonai Sioux. 

d. Turtle Mountain Agency: 

Pembina Chippewa. 

18. Oklahoma: 

a. Cheyenne and Arapaho Agency: 

Southern Arapaho, Southern Cheyenne. 

b. Five Civilized Tribes: 

Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, 
Seminole, Delaware. 


c. Kiowa Agency: 

Apache, Comanche, Delaware, Kiowa, 
Ioni, Caddo, Waco, Tawakoni, Wichita. 

d. Osage Agency: 


e. Pawnee Agency: 

Kaw, Tonkawa, Lipan, Otoe and Mis- 
souri, Pawnee, Posca. 

f . Quapaw Agency : 

Ottawa, Quapaw, Seneca, Eastern Shaw- 
nee, Kickapoo, Wyandot. 

g. Shawnee Agency: 

Absentee Shawnee, Kiowa, Iowa, Ton- 
kawa, Mexican Kickapoo, Citizen Pota- 
watomi, Ottawa, Sac and Fox of the 

19. Oregon: 

a. Klamath Agency: 

Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, Pit River, 
Walpapi, Yahuskin band of Snake 

b. Salem School: 

Calapooya, Clackama, Cow Creek, Lak- 
miut, Marys River, Molala, Nestucca, 
Rogue River, Santiam, Shasta, Turn- 
water, Umpqua, Wapato, Yamhill, 
Fourth Section Allottees. 

c. Siletz Subagency: 

Alsea, Coquille, Kusa, Kwatami, Rogue 
River, Skoton, Shasta, Siuslaw, Tututni, 
Umpqua, etc. 

d. Umatilla Agency: 

Cayuse, Umatilla, Wallawalla. 


e. Warm Springs Agency: 

Des Chutes, John Day, Paiute, Tenino, 
Warm Springs, Wasco. 

20. South Dakota: 

a. Cheyenne River Agency: 

Blackfeet Sioux, Miniconjou, Sans Arcs, 
Two Kettle Sioux. 

b. Crow Creek Agency : 

Lower Brule, Lower Yankton Sioux. 

c. Flandreau School: 


d. Pine Ridge Agency: 

Brule and Oglala Sioux. 

e. Rosebud Agency: 

Loafer, Miniconjou, Northern Oglala, 
Two Kettle, Upper Brule, Wazhazhe 

f. Sisseton Agency: 

Sisseton and Wahpeton Sioux. 

g. Yankton Agency: 

Yankton Sioux. 

21. Utah: 

a. Consolidated Ute Agency : 


b. Paiute Agency: 


c. Uintah and Ouray Agency: 

Goshute, Pavant, Uintah, Yampa, White 
River Ute, Grand River Uncampahgre 
Tabeguache Ute. 


22. Washington: 

a. Colville Agency: 

Colville, Spokane. 

b. Spokane Agency : 


c. Kalispel Reservation : 


d. Neah Bay Agency: 


e. Taholah Agency : 

Chinook, Clatsop, Chehalis, Muckel- 
shoot, Nisqualli, Puyallup, Skwawks- 
namish, Steilacoomamish, etc., Quaitso, 
Quileute, Qunaielt, Shoalwater, Clallam, 
Skokomish, Twana, Squapin. 

f. Tulalip Agency : 

Clallam, Dwamish, Etakmehu, Lummi, 
Snohomish, Suquamish, Swiwamish, 
Muckelshoot, Nooksak Nisqualli, Puyal- 
lup, Skwawksnamish, Suiattle, Steilacoo- 
mamish, Tulalip. 

g. Yakima Agency : 

Klikitat, Paloos, Topinish, Wasco, 

23. Wisconsin : 

a. Hayward Agency: 

Lac Courts Oreille band of Chippewa of 
Lake Superior. 

b. Keshana Agency : 

Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge and 

c. Lac de Flambeau Agency : 

Lac du Flambeau and La Pointe bands of 


Chippewa of Lake Superior, Rice Lake 
band of Chippewa, Bad River Chippewa, 
Wisconsin band of Potawatomi. 
d. Tomah Agency : 

24. Wyoming: 

a. Shoshone Agency: 

Northern Arapaho, Eastern band of 


(Numbers on margin refer to "Present Location" 
just given) . 

Arapahoes — Algonkins. Native name, Inunaina, 
"Our Own People." Descendants of followers 
of King Chilili, seventh century. Northern or 

parent branch now at 24 

Southern branch at 18a 

Blackfeet — Algonkins. Also followed King 
Chilili. In modern history, their Kainah, Blood, 
Piegan and Siksika tribes appear as the Siksika 
Confederacy, allied with Arapaho Atsina and 

Chippewa Sarsi. Now at 11a 


Cheyenne — Algonkins. So called by the Sioux. 
Their own name however is Dzitsi-ista, "Our 
People." They are descendants of King Penk- 
wonwi, ninth century, who brought his people 


back from the drouth stricken west to the 
"pleasant plain" around St. Paul and Minne- 
apolis, and the Falls of St. Anthony. From 
these Falls, Cheyenne spread again into South 

Northern branch now at 11 

Southern branch now at 18a 

Delaware — Descendants of the Lenape or "First 
Men." In modern times they have called them- 
selves by such names as Pohegan, Mohegan, 
Opuhnarke, according to various authorities, in 
addition to Lenape. They are said to have begun 
their return west of the Mississippi from the 
time the whites first came to America. Accord- 
ing to their count, they reached the Delaware 
river about 1397 A.D. It was from the Turtle 
Tribe, later known as Minsi, that the King of 
the League was chosen. 

The Minsi, modern corruption Munsee, now at .... 7 


Remaining Delawares at 18b 


Fox — Algonkin. Native name Muskwakiwak. 
The Chippewas who fought them, called them 
Utugaming, "People of the Other Shore," hence 
the French "Outagamies." In modern times 
the French-Indian enemies of the Fox, referred 
to them as "Robbers, Murderers" which is the 
term used in the Walam Olum for those who pre- 
cipitated the first rebellion against the League 
resulting in the Great Snake War in the seventh 
century. In modern times their ancient alliance 


with Sioux and Iroquois has been frequently 

maintained. They are now at 6 

Kigkapoo — Algonkin. Native name, Kiwigapawa, 
"He Stands About," or "Alert." More closely 
related to the Miami-Menomini-Shawnee group 
than to the Ottawa-Chippewa-Pottawotomi or 
"3-Fires" group. They were allies of the Fox 
and Sac and the Siouan Iowa tribes in modern 

times. Now at 7 

Menominee — Algonkin. Descendants of the 
western group allied with the Tawa of the 
Walam Olum in rebellions against the league. 

Now at 23b 

Ottawa — The Tawa of the Walam Olum and 
originally the same with the Odjibwa or Chip- 
pewa. They were chief guardians of the Mide- 
wiwan among the Algonkins, and it is from this 
group of Algonkins we get most of our informa- 
tion about the ancient mysteries. Now at 8 

Pottawotomi — Descendants of the Tawa and in 
modern times one of the "Three Fires." The 
French called the Sacs "The Fire People," in- 
stead of the Pottawotomi who rightfully are 

named so. Now at 6 



Sacs — Properly "Sauks." Their native name how- 
ever is Osakiwug or "People of the Outlet" or 
else "People of the Yellow Earth." They were 
Michiganders, known in modern times as 
"Muscodesh" or Macinac people, and called by 
the French, the Fire People. They were friends 
and allies of the Fox, Mascoutens; enemies of 
Ottawa and the Hurons in modern times. Ap- 
parently they were the first Algonkin inhabitants 
of Michigan before the Lenape migration. Now 

at 6 


Shawnees — Same as the Shawnees who left the 
parent stem and went south, according to the 
Walam Olum, in the thirteenth century, the 
Nanticokes going about the same time. The 
name Shawnee means simply "Southerners." 
The Nanticokes went to Maryland and the 
Shawnee penetrated even into Florida, though 
always keeping their war-town at the mouth of 
the Scioto River in Ohio, where they probably 
crossed over on their original southern migra- 
tion. Now at 18f 


Cherokee — Iroquoian. Native name Tsalika or 
Snake Like Ones. Descendants of the Talega 
of the Walam Olum in which they later appear 
as Otali or mountain Cherokee (as distinguished 
from the Elati or lower Cherokee) . In modern 
times they sought peace with the Delaware as 
late as 1768. Their allies the "Coweta" were 


allied with the Delaware twenty years earlier 

and probably long before. Now at 16 


Chickasaw — Muskoki. Same as the Coweta of 
the Walam Olum. Now at 18b 

Choctaw — Muskoki and therefore included in 
the term for this stock, "Coweta" used in the 
Walam Olum. They were originally from west 
of the Mississippi, probably from Mexico, and 
one people with the Chickasaw. In modern times 
they have acted as American scouts in the Upper 

Ohio Valley. They are now at 10 


Creeks — Muskoki. The true Coweta Confeder- 
acy was probably inspired by the Shawnee. It 
fought DeSoto on his journey to the Mississippi. 
Tecumseh, himself an Algonkin, succeeded in 
allying them with the Great League while he 
was King. Now at 18b 

Iroquios — Iroquoian. They were the Mengwae 
of the Walam Olum. The true council fire of 
their League is today in Canada, though New 
York Iroquois still retain their traditions and 
form of government. 

Oneidas are now at 15 


Senacas now at 15 

Others now at 15 

Seminole — Muskoki. The Shawnees contacted 
them in Florida and at times were friendly with 

them. Now at 3 


Sioux — The "Snakes" of the Walam Olum. The 


Algonkins named all enemies "Snakes" or adders 

but the Sioux were the particular "Snakes" of 

legend, prehistoric enemies. 

There were Eastern and Western Sioux. 

With the Western Sioux or Nadowe-isiw 

(whence the French "Sioux"), otherwise the 

Dakota tribes, the Lenape fought the Great 

Snake War. 

The Dakotah and probably mixed tribes are 

now at 9b 

The Eastern Sioux who were driven across the 
Mississippi by the Lenape and their allies, are 
represented today by various tribes often at war 
with the Dakota in modern times. East and 
West did not seem to mix well, though they are 
akin. The Easterners were agricultural almost 
entirely and probably allied with the Cherokees 
for at least 2000 years, at which time the 
Cherokees are estimated to have come into Ken- 
tucky, according to Williard Rouse Jillson, 
geologist. The coming of buffalo into Kentucky 
a thousand years later is supposed to have 


greatly changed the Eastern Siouan civiliza- 
tion. The following descendants of the East- 
ern Siouan fugitives from the Ohio Valley are 
now at the places indicated. 

Ponca and Omaha 12b 

Oto, Missouri, Kaw 18e 

Wichita 18c 

Iowa 7 


Osage .... 1 8d 

Quapaw (Kapaha of DeSoto) 18f 

Mandan 17a 

Winnebago 6 


Wyandottes — Iroquoian. The native name is 
Wendat, corrupted by the French, who also 
nicnamed them "Hurons." The Wendats 
formed their own League about 1400 A.D. 
They are the descendants of the Talamatans of 
the Walam Olum. Now at 18f 


State 1930 1920 

Alabama 465 405 

Arizona 43,727 32,989 

Arkansas 408 106 

California 19,212 17,360 

Colorado 1,395 1,383 

Connecticut 162 159 

Delaware 5 2 


District of Columbia 




























































New Hampshire 



New Jersey 



New Mexico 



New York 



North Carolina 



North Dakota 















Rhode Island 



South Carolina 



South Dakota 

















West Virginia 














Total 332,397 244,437 

Estimate of the Indian population in 1492 has placed 
the number at less than a million — 846,000. This is 
based upon the assumption that constant wars (and the 
observation of white men never led them to think 
otherwise) tended to thin out much increase of popula- 
tion; that so many villages seen in a locality, contained 
so many houses and supported so many families. West 
of the Mississippi was long regarded as too wild to 
maintain any real civilization. 

The truth is that there were probably several millions 
of inhabitants in America in 1492. 

In 1865 the census estimate was 294,574. 

"Rum" and guns and diseases following the advent 
of the whites speedily brought down the population. 

Note 34. Midewiwan. The Cross was its symbol, 
referring to the four cardinal points, the four layers of 
earth and the four layers of heaven as symbolized by 
the 8 degrees. The Otter was given the degrees by 
Nanaboush after the animal made its appearance at 
the four quarters and came to the center of the earth to 
be initiated. This I take to indicate both the univer- 
sality of the mysteries and the special claim of the 
Ottawa to have received the degrees directly from this 


ancient hero. There were two Algonkin rites, in which 
a shell was used to symbolize the power "shot" into the 
candidate from the mouth of a medicine bag. The 
Otter rite was said to have been most popular with 
Southern Algonkins and the Megis Shell with the 
Northerners. In the Megis sheU rite the big Megis 
played the part of the Otter in reference to appearing 
and disappearing at the four quarters. The temples or 
odges of the Midewiwan were called Midewigans. 
The mysteries included knowledge of healing, history, 
statecraft and religion. 

— References, "Complete History of Ottawa and Chip- 
pewa Indians in Michigan," by Chief Mackade- 
penessy, (Black Hawk) or Andrew J. Blackbird, 

"Hoffman's Paper on the Midewiwanm," 1885, in 
7th Smithsonian Report. 

"Chippewa Music," in Bulletins 45, 53 B.A.E. 

"Chippewa Customs," in Bulletin 86 B.A.E. 

Note 35. Wakon-Kitchewa, said to be identical 
with the Algonkin mysteries by Jonathan Carver. 
"Travels Through Interior Parts of North America," 

Note 36. West. "Going West" is no less an 
aboriginal than a modern American idea of death. 
There is the setting sun. The Sun expressed the Great 
Spirit as Giver of Life. So the trails to the Happy 
Hunting ground generally ran west. Heroes some- 
times journeyed there and came back if they could avoid 
being crushed between the sky and the land at the 
horizon where the movements of the land (a great 


turtle) caused the two to gape wide at times. Most of 
the Southern tribes had traditions of coming from the 
west to east of the Mississippi. They also generally 
believed they came from the ground or underneath the 
earth, while the northern tribes generally believed they 
came from above. The Siouans, even in the South, 
were of those who came from above. Origin of the 
tribes "from beneath the earth," points to the Rocky 
Mountains or to cave dwellings or perhaps even pueblo 

Note 37. "Little Old Men." The Siouans alone 
appear to have a mystical tradition assigning a more 
human origin to their religious organization. Their 
Little Old Men did much thinking and speculating, 
finally agreeing upon an organization to preserve knowl- 
edge about nature. They became Holy Ones. The 
"Nika Xube" of the Sioux seems to be about the same 
idea as the Chickasaw had of Holy Ones of long ago 
who followed the Xobe path (of the Milky Way). It 
is possible that the ancestors of the Sioux really origin- 
ated the Priest House, called by them Wakon-Kitchewa 
and by the Algonkins, Midewiwan. 

Note 38. Universal Mysteries — Future re- 
search should encounter rich rewards in comparing 
certain key words of the various Indian mysteries, not 
for their literal meaning, but as evidences of antiquity 
of the mysteries themselves. Thus the theory of Adair 
as to Jewish lost tribes, accounting for American 
Indians, absurd as it seems, rested upon his observation 
of Indian rituals in which a sacred syllable was oft re- 
peated that sounded like the Jewish Jah or Jehovah. 
Pioneer Masonic writers likewise were fond of alluding 


to the supposed fact that the Indians had a name for 
God that was undoubtedly the same as the ancient 
J.H.V.H. of other nations (pronounced variously Jah, 
Ea, Jove, etc.). 

The Sioux did indeed have that syllable as Ea and 
the Muskoki races likewise. In various guises it may be 
found among many Indian nations. But it is explained 
by modern research as quite aboriginal and having 
nothing to do with inhabitants of other continents. 

Again the word Kitche means literally different 
things to Siouan, Algonkin, Hopi, Iroquois. But it 
appears in their mystical lore in connection with much 
the same ideas. Also the word Nika, is found among 
different mysteries, probably with different literal mean- 
ings but connected with the idea of Brotherhood. The 
same idea of spiritual power is expressed by entirely 
different words among the same nations mentioned. 
The Sun is common to all the mysteries. But only the 
Sioux call it Tonga Wakon (Carver, page 380). The 
thought rather than the terms describing mystery 
things among the Indians, leads one to the conclusion 
that they had a "universal religion." 

Note 39. Temples. Early historians complained 
that the Indians had no temples save those of the far 
south. The Midewiwan was crude indeed, a temporary 
structure. But the ancient aboriginals did have temples, 
attached to mounds as evidenced by the one carefully 
described in the article on the Gordon Town Site in 
Tennessee. See Note 12 for reference. 

In all these more stable temples the evidence points 
to a similarity to the famous one at Natchez so carefully 
described by the French. 


Note 40. Witchcraft. See "Annals of Witchcraft 
in New England," by Samuel G. Drake, 1869, for 
several instances of conflict between Indian and Massa- 
chusetts "religion." The Indians were taught in the 
mysteries to abhor witchcraft but the whites regarded 
their Medi priests as wizards and necromancers with- 
out regard to whether the magic was black or white ! 
Finally the whites passed a law prohibiting the practice 
of such devil worship. What the Indians saw the 
whites doing to their own people, did not give them any 
great confidence and this law finished the loyalty of the 
"praying Indians" forever. 

Note 41. Wampum, being made with two hands 
had a certain sanctity when employed in recording 
sacred things. The open hand and especially two hands, 
were peace signs. They still are in the universal sign 
language. Ancient hieroglyphics or Indian pictures 
sometimes show the open hand on a priest's dress. So 
many were the uses of wampum that its manufacture 
was constant when there was leisure. There could 
never be too much wampum, whether as a medium of 
exchange (money) or for treaty making, ritual pur- 
poses or otherwise. As money, the New Englanders 
adopted it with the Indians and paid them in beads, 
collecting what they thought were taxes in fathoms of 

Tecumseh, King of the League in his day, adopted 
the white man's idea of money in part, issuing bits of 
bark or paper for supplies, stamped with the Otter of 
the Midewiwam. Every one accepted this money be- 
cause of its character which no Indian could repudiate 
without shame. 


Abnaki, 183. 

Acorns, 31. 

Adams, John, 145. 

Adams, John Quincy, 145. 

Adders (Enemy Sioux), 172. 

Africa, 49. 

Agriculture, 52, 53, 160, 169, 173, 

Ahookassong (Iroquois Chief), 37. 

Akensis (Allegewi), 67, 203. 

Akomenep (Snake Island), 47, 

Akhonapi (Snake People), 161-6. 

Alabama, 82, 111, 205, 228. 

Albigenses, 70. 

Alfred The Great, 53. 

Algonquin Stock, 10, 17, 22, 26, 
35, 40, 43, 45, 48, 52, 58, 60, 63, 
74, 79, 81, 86, 89-102, 104, 108, 
113, 116, 123, 132, 138, 143, 150, 
152, 198, 201, 203, 208, 212, 233. 

Allegheney Mountains, 81-2. 

Allegewi (Eastern Sioux), 69, 81, 
111, 202, 203, 205. 

Allumpees (King), 39. 

Andastes, 36. 

Anibikanzibi (Greenleaf river), 
65, 131. 

Animie Watigong, 130. 

Arabian Nights, 51. 

Arabs, 52. 

Arapahoes, 199, 222. 

Aribis, 130. 

Arizona, 213, 228. 

Arkansas, 81, 228. 

Appaches, 114. 

Appendix Notes, 198. 

Ashibagisibi (river), 131. 

Asia, 207. 

Assinapi (Assiniboines), 166, 172. 

Assiniboines (Tribe), 47, 62, 167, 

Assiniboine River (Canada), 47. 
Athabaska country, 198. 
Athelstane, king, 56. 
Atlantic Division (See Delaware 

Division), 87, 196. 
Atlantic Ocean, 44, 129, 19V. 
Atsina (Tribe), 200, 223. 
Awaiting (Cross Village, Mich.), 

Aztecs, 49. 


Bacon's Rebellion, 91. 

Bad River (Mich.), 130. 

Bad Minito, 80, 121. 

Bagdad, 49. 

Bald Eagle (See KINGS), 48. 

Baliol, John, 71. 

Bawating (Mich.), 130. 

Baltimore, Lord, 36. 

Bear Hills, 165. 

Bear Manito, 131. 

Beattie, 201. 

Beaver (tribe), 36, 46, 161-3, 166. 

Beckner, Col. Lucien, 149, 150, 

Behring Strait, 207. 
Big River (Tenn.), 104. 
Bi^ Snake (Maskanako), 44. 
Biloxi (La.), 206. 
Bjarni Herjulfson, 61. 
Bjarni Asbrandon, 63. 
Blackbird (Chief), 128, 231. 
Blackfeet (tribe), 30. 
Blackhawk (chief), 111, 127, 200. 
Black Snake, The, 109, 157, 212. 
Black Prince, The, 72. 
Blood (Tribe), 223. 
Boweting (Mich.), 130. 
Braddock's Defeat, 98, 100. 
Bradford, (Gov.), 30. 




Breath Master, 120. 
Brinton (publisher), 148. 
Bristol (Pokonoket), R.I., 141. 
British (See English), 15-17, 22, 

26, 34, 39, 104, 111, 141, 195. 
Buffalo Land (Canada), 46, 166, 

Buffalo in Ohio Valley, 204, 226. 
Bulgaria, 64. 
Byzantine Empire, 64, 72. 

Cabot, John, 83, 91, 150, 184. 

California, 214, 228. 

Caliphs of Islam, 49. 

Calumet, 12, 15, 32, 50, 59, 68, 79, 

136 et seq., 197, 199. 
Calvinists, 86. 
Cambridge University, 71. 
Canada, 44, 81, 91, 96, 98, 146. 

211, 213. 
Canfield, Wm., 207. 
Cape Henlopen, 33. 
Captain Pipe, 22. 
Carolina?, 70, 82. 

Carver, Jonathan, 120, 194, 231. 

Cartier, Jacques, 91. 

Caspian Sea, 70. 

Catawbas (Eastern Sioux), 36, 
68, 82, 125, 206. 

Catalan, 72. 

Catholics, 86, 87. 

Cave Dwellers, 45, 160, 232. 

Cave Place (Minn.), 169, 199. 

Chakekenapok (Monster), 157. 

Cherokees (Talega), 22, 36, 59, 
67, 74, 77, 82, 84, 86, 88, 98-102, 
112. 117, 177, 185, 205-6, 209, 

212, 213, 225. 

Champlain, Samuel, 92, 95. 210. 

Charlemagne, 51, 52. 
Charlevoix, 207, 211, 212. 
Chaucer, 72. 

Chatahoochie River (Miss.), 211. 
Chacunpatan, 60. 
Cheasapeak Bav, 89. 
Chester (Pa.), 29. 
Cheyennes (tribe), 113, 200, 222. 
Chictaghicks, 127. 

Chickasaws (Coweta)., 36, 82, 84, 

86, 106, 109, 120, 211. 
Chikanapi, 166. 

Chikimini (Turtle tribe), 187. 
China, 72, 73, 79. 
Chipiapoos (Dead Keeper), 156. 
Chippewa (tribe) 26, 100, 106, 

108, 120, 123, 129, 231. 
Chiwere Tribes (Sioux), 209. 
Churchill River (Canada), 47. 
Choctaw (Coweta), 106, 109. 
Christian Delawares, 128. 
Christian Indians, 133. 
Civil War, 112, 114, 146. 
Clark, Gen. George Rogers, 105, 

106, 212. 
Communipaw (N.J.), 93, 210, 212. 
Conestogas, 36. 

Connecticut, 97, 135, 145, 228. 
Connoodaghto (Sakim), 36. 
Congress of Colonies, 18, 20, 21, 

22, 105. 
Constantinople, 77. 
Colorado, 215, 281. 
Columbian Order, 143, 144. 
Columbus, Christopher, 32, 83, 

Cooper, James Fenimore, 4. 
Corn, 52, 168. 
Corn Planter (Seneca Chief), 77, 

124, 125, 126. 
Council at Sakimaxon (Pa.), 32. 
Cortez, 86. 
Cortoreal, 91. 
Coweta, 82, 96, 102, 106, 108, 184, 

203, 211, 212. 
Custer's Massacre, 113. 
Cranmer, Archbishop, 86. 
Crecy, Battle of, 72. 
Crees (Tribe), 47. 
Creeks (tribes), 36, 82, 109, 111, 

146, 185, 211. 
Cross of the Mide, 79, 80, 208, 

Cross Village (Mich.), 130. 
Crusades in Europe, 66, 70, 71. 


Dakotas (See Snakes; Nado- 
wesiw), 46, 68, 82, 111, 113, 172. 
Dances, 31. 



Danes, 56, 64, 74. 
Dante, 71. 

Deadwood Region, 131. 
Dead-Keeper, The, 156. 
De Ayllon, 17, 98, 208. 
Deghiha Confederacy, 81, 209. 
Degrees of Midiwan, 131. 
Delaware (State), 97, 141, 145, 

228. , 4 ti 

Delaware Division (i. e. Atlan- 
tic), 186. 
Delaware River, 29. 
Delaware Tribes, 15, 17, 19, 20, 

22, 25, 26, 27, 32, 35, 37, 38, 40, 

58, 62, 70, 73, 77, 86, 87, 88, 89, 

96, 97, 98, 102, 104-109, 126, 128, 

142, 200, 203, 204, 205, 213, 

222, 224. 
DeMolay, 72. 
Denmark, 73. 

Depression (890 A.D.), 54. 
De Soto, Ferdinand, 82, 88, 203, 

205, 208, 224, 225. 
District of Columbia, 228. 
Divine Light (Quaker Manito), 

Division of Great League (See 

Eastern, Western, Atlantic), 66. 
Dragon (Great Snake Manito, 

Drought, 54, 169, 204. 
Dutch, 16, 27, 28, 89, 91, 92, 95, 

96, 97, 98, 99, 150, 212. 
Dzhemanito (Good Manito), 42, 

43, 44, 131. 
Dzitsi-Istas (Cheyennes), 200, 


Eagles (tribe), 46, 161-163. 
Eastern Division Latin Empire, 

Eastern Division Lenape League, 

66, 69, 73, 79, 81, 99, 108, 131, 

Ea-Wakonda, 21, 233. 
Ea-Wawonake, 122. 
Eclipse of Sun (1451 A.D.), 77, 

Edward III, 72. 
Egypt, 69. 
Elder Brother (Wm. Penn), 25. 

Elizabeth, Queen, 86. 

England, 67. 

English (See British), 93, 95-98, 

100, 103, 111, 123, 213. 
Eric The Red, 60. 
Eries (See Lynx, the Cat Nation), 

36, 74, 79. 
Eskimos, 56, 120, 140. 
Etaw Mound (Ga.), 209. 

Faguendez, 91. 
Fairies (Nantines), 43. 
Falls of Ohio (Ky.), 68, 211. 
Falls of St. Anthony (Minn.), 199, 

Farmers of Lenape ( Wendats and 

Iroquois), 46. 
Ferdinand and Isabella, 82. 
Filson, John, 211. 
Fire People (see Muscodesh), 48, 

100, 223. 
Fire Water, 35, 40, 96, 98. 
First Men (Lenape), 43. 
Fish Land (Canada), 166. 
Fish River (Namaesipu or Nema- 

kan, Canada), 63, 65, 140, 173, 

179, 202, 205, 207. 
Fish Spawn River (Greenleaf, 

Minn.), 64. 
Five Nations (See Six Nations), 

36, 38, 45, 64, 77, 81, 82, 86, 93, 

Florence, 85. 
Florida, 36, 70, 73, 74, 82, 86, 91, 

95, 99, 111, 112, 207, 215, 228. 
Fon du Lac (Wis.), 130. 
Ft. Ellsworth Treaty, 113. 
Ft. Harmer Treaty, 107. 
Ft. Johnson Treaty, 103. 
Ft. Mcintosh Treaty, 106. 
Ft. Stanwix Treaty, 106. 
Fortified Towns, 205. 
Forty-Second Light Infantry (N. 

Y.), 146. 

Fox (See Outagamies), 48, 111, 
222, 223. 

France, 52, 67, 76, 87, 91. 

Franks, 49. 

Frederick Barbarossa, 67, 70. 



Freedom (Tamanend Ideal) 25, 

26, 12+. 
Freedom of Thought, 40. 
French, 15-17, 96-98, 100, 103, 105, 

French-Indian War, 35, 98. 
Fur Traders, 57. 

Ganawese (tribe), 37. 

Ganetha (the Siouan Knowl- 
edge), 122. 

Ganshowenik (Niagara), 86. 

Garangula, 123, 127. 

Geneva, 85. 

Genghis Kahn, 70. 

Georgia, 70, 81, 91, 145, 203, 214, 

Germany, 52, 67, 72, 86. 

Geronimo, 113. 

Ghibellines, 70. 

"Going West," 231. 

Gordon Town Site (Tenn.), 202, 

Gravier, Father, 203. 

Great Elm of Penn and Tam- 
many, 31, 34. 

Great Flood, 121, 156. 

Great League (Lenape), 17, 46, 
47, 50, 55, 56, 64, 66, 78, 87, 98, 
100, 102, 104, 108, 111, 130, 140, 

Great Medicine Society (See 
Midewiwan; Wakon-Kit- 

chewa), 119. 

Great Miami Treaty, 107. 

Great Snake War, 49, 50, 57, 63, 

Great Spirit (Kitche-Manito), 
20, 25, 32, 34, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 
51, 54, 55, 59, 61, 80, 86, 110, 
111, 112, 115, 116, 117, 120, 121, 
124, 126, 129, 135, 136, 137, 138, 

Greenland, 6, 62. 

Greenleaf River, 131. 

Grellon, Father, 207. 

Guelphs, 71. 

Guns, Indians get, 40, 96, 98. 

Guttenberg, 75. 

Gyantwahchi (Chief Corn- 

planter), 77. 


Half Moon, The, 92, 210. 
Hamilton, Alexander, 143. 
Hapsburgs, 72. 
Heckewelder, Rev. Jno., 58, 128, 

201, 204, 205. 
Harun Al Rashid, 51. 
Henry II, 67, 70. 
Henry III, 71. 
Henry IV, 71. 
Henry VIII, 85. 
Hiawatha (Iroquois Hero), 40, 

77, 88. 
Hilini (Illinois), 185. 
Hobbamock, 133. 
Hochelega (Wendat Capitol), 81, 

92, 94, 130, 212. 
Hodenosaunee ("Long House"), 

Hoffman (Midewiwan authority), 

Hopewell Treaty, 107. 
Holston Treaty, 108. 
Holy Experiment (Wm. Penn), 

25, 27. 
Holy Mysteries (See Midewi- 
wan), 138, 139. 
Holy Ones, 232. 
Holy League, 87. 
Hominy, 31, 168. 
Honduras, 62. 

Hopi (Tribes), 120, 123, 233. 
Horn of Kingly Power, 32. 
Hudson Bay, 98. 
Hudson, Henry, 92, 210. 
Huguenots, 86. 
Hugh Capet, 61. 
Huitramanland, 60. 

Huminiend (King Hominy), See 
Kings, 52. 

Hungarians, 71, 72. 

Hurons (See Wendats; Wyan- 
dottes; Talamatans), 16, 66, 81, 
86, 92, 93, 95, 96, 98, 99, 100, 
174, 185. 

Huron Woman in Tartary, 207. 



Ice Age, 45. 

Iceland, 53, 55. 

Idaho, 210, 228. 

Illinois, 86, 228. 

Improved Order of Red Men, 143. 

Imprisonment for Debt, 146. 

Incas, 77. 

India, 64, 70. 

Indiana, 228. 

Indianapolis, 70. 

Indian Museum (N. Y.), 146. 

Indian Population of U. S., 228. 

Inua (Eskimo Manito), 120. 

Inuanaina (Arrapahoes), 199, 

Inquisition, 30, 70. 

Iowa, 52, 56, 66, 198, 228. 

Iowa (tribes), 209, 225. 

Irish, 53, 62, 64. 

Iroquois, 16, 17, 35, 37, 38, 39, 44, 
45, 62, 74, 76, 80, 87, 88, 92, 93, 
95, 96-100, 102, 104-106, 113, 
114, 120, 127, 143, 187, 196, 202, 
203, 213, 224, 233. 

Iroquois League, 36, 127. 

Irving, Washington, 198, 212. 

Island of Nanaboush, 131. 

Italy, 52, 86. 

Jackson, Andrew, 111, 145. 
Jamestown (Va.), 89, 93, 95, 140, 

Jefferson, Thomas, 145. 
Jerusalem, 70. 

Jilson Willard Rouse, 204, 225. 
Joan of Arc, 73. 
John of England, 70. 
John Huss, 73. 


Kanawas (tribe), 86, 185. 
Kansas, 115, 209, 215, 228. 
Kaina (tribe), 222. 
Kansa, 211. 

Katcina (Hopi Manito), 120, 122. 
Kapahaw, 68, 225. 
Kaw, 203, 225. 
Kawasitshuiwongk, 130. 
Kentucky, 203, 206, 211, 228. 

Kikapoos, 223. 

Kings of Lenape in Walam Olum. 
Begin pg. 164. 
Alkasohit (Strong Man, 869 

A. D.), 168. 
Alokuwi (Lean One, 1063 

A. D.), 172. 
Ayamek (Siezer, 644 A. U.), 

Chilili (Snow Bird, 643 A. D.), 

Chingalsuwi (Stiff One, 902 

A. D.), 165. 
Chitanitis (String Friend, 1096 

A. D.), 174. 
Chitanwulit (String and Good, 

1053 A. D.), 172. 
Elangomel (Peacemaker, 1487 

A. D.), 184. 
Epalachund (Man Who Fails, 

1579 A. D.), 187. 
Gattawisa (Getting Fat, 1397 

A. D.), 182. 
Ginkenopalat (Great Fighter, 
1376 A. D.), 181. 
Gunitakan (Long and Mild, 

1162 A. D.), 176. 
Gunokim (Snow Father, 816 

A. D.), 167. 
Hanaholend (River Loving, 

1387 A. D.), 182. 
Hattonwulaton (Has Posses- 
sion 1150 A. D.), 175. 
Humeniend (Corn Breaker, 859 

A. D.), 168. 
Janotowi (On Guard, 633 A. 

D.\ 165. 
Kenechepend (Sharp One, 1106 

A. D.), 68, 174. 
Kitchitamak (Big Beaver, A. 

D. 1290, also 1463), 72, 82, 

Kolachuisen (Pretty Bluebird, 

1247 A. D.), 178. 
Kolawil (Beautiful Head, 611 

A. D.), 48, 164. 
Kwitikwond (Reprover, 923 

A. D.), 55, 169. 
Langomuwi (Is Friendly, 1588 

A. D.), 187, 210. 



Langundowi (Peaceable, 761 

A. D.), 60, 167. 
Lapawin (Rich Again, 999 A. 

D.), 171. 
Lekhihiten (Recorder, 1237 A. 

D.), 70, 178. 
Linkwekinuk (Look Out, 1354 

A. D.), 181. 
Linniwulamen (Truthful, 1172 

A. D.), 176. 
Lokwelend (Walker, 1323 A. 

D.), 180. 
Lowaponskan (North Walker, 

1561 A. D.), 86, 186. 
Machigokloos (Big Owl, 967 

A. D.), 171. 
Makaholend (Loving, 933 A. 

D.), 55, 56, 170. 
Makelomush (Much Honored, 

1507 A. D.), 85, 184-. 
Makiawip (Red Arrow, 14-10 

A. D.), 182. 
Makolomokom (Grandfather 

of Boats, 1333 A. D.), 180. 
Mangipitak (Big Teeth, 826 

A. D.), 167. 
Maskansisil (Strong Buffalo, 

956 A. D.), 171. 
Matemik (No Blood, 804 A. 

D.), 167. 
Messisuwi (Always Ready, 

1042 A. D.) ( 172.' 
Nanachihat (Watcher, 1617 A. 

D.), 188. 
Nitispayat (Comes as Friend, 

1543 A. D.), 85, 86, 185. 
Olumapi (Tally Maker, 837 A. 

D.), 167. 
Onowutok (The Seer, 1301 A. 

D.), 72, 179. 
Opekasit (Oppossum Like, 1075 

A. D.), 63, 64, 65, 173. 
Paganchilla (Breaker in Pieces, 

1139 A. D.), 175. 
Pakimitzen (Cranberry Eater, 

1552 A. D.), 186. 
Pawanarai (Rich Down River, 

1311 A. D.), 180. 
Pemaholend (Much Loved, 783 

A. D.), 167. 

Peraatalli (Always There, 1258 

A. D.), 178. 
Penkwonwi (Dried Up, 890 A. 

D.), 169. 
Pepomahenem (Paddler Up 

Stream, 1268 A. D.), 179. 
Pilwhalen (Holy One, 794 A. 

D.), 167. 
Pimikhasuwi (Stirrer, 1118 A. 

D.), 175. 
Pitinumen (Makes Mistakes, 

1498 A. D.), 82-85, 184. 
Shagapewi (Just and Upright, 

1183 A. D.), 177. 
Shiwapi (Saltman, 880 A. D.), 

Taguchi (Shivers With Cold, 

847 A. D.), 168. 
Tamaganend (Pipebearer, 1193 

A. D.), 177. 
TAMANEND I (Affable, 946 

A. D.), 49, 56, 57, 59, 152, 

170, 201. 
TAMANEND II (1451 A. D.), 

75-82 84 183 
TAMANEND III, 25, 29, 32, 

33, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 59. 
Tankowon (Little Cloud, 1280 

A. D.), 179. 
Tashawinso (Slow Gatherer, 

1570 A. D.), 87, 88, 186. 
Tasukamend (Not Black, 773 

A. D.), 167. 
Tenchekentit (Firebuilder, 1128 

A. D.), 68, 175. 
Tumaokan (Wolf-wise, 1032 

A. D.), 62, 172. 
Wallama (Painted, 1010 A. 

D.), 171. 
Wangomend (Saluted, 1597 A. 

D.), 89, 188, 210. 
Wapachikis (White Crab, 1607 

A. D.), 188. 
Wapaghokos (White Owl, 621 

A. D.), 165. 
Wapagumoshki (White Otter, 

1525 A. D.), 185. 
Wapahakey (White Body, 1476 

A. D.), 183. 
Wapalanewa (Bald Eagle, 600 

A. D.), 164. 



Wapalawikwan (East Villager, 

1366 A. D.), 181. 
Wapashum (White Horn, 1534 

A. D.), 185. 
Wapashuwi (White Lynx, 1205 

A. D.), 178. 
Wapicholen (White Bird, 977 

A. D.), 171. 
Waptipatit (White Fowl, 1020 

A. D.), 171. 
Wenkwochella (Fatigued, 890 

A. D.), 5+, 169. 
Winelowich (Snow-hunter, 

1344, A. D.), 181. 
Wingenund (Willing, 989 A. 

D.),_61, 171. 
Wolomenep (Painted, 1424 A. 

D.), 182. 
Wulakeningus (Well Praised, 

1507 A. D.), 85, 184. 
Wulitpallat (Good Fighter, 

1438 A. D.), 75, 183. 
Wulitshinik (Good and Strong, 

1215 A. D.), 178. 
Yagawanend (Cabin Builder, 
1885 A. D.), 173. 
King Philip's War, 98. 
King William's War, 98. 
Kitahikan (Atlantic Ocean), 155. 

(Great Lakes), 162, 163. 
Kitche Manito (See Great Spirit). 
Kitchemite (Great Nide or High 

Priest), 51. 
Kitche-Okeinaw of Tammany 

Society, 145. 
Kittuwa, 203. 
Knights Templar, 72. 
Knisteneau (tribe), 47. 
Kublai Kahn, 71. 
Kiwagapawa (Kikapoos), 223. 
Koguethagechton (See Capt. 
White Eyes), 15. 


Labrador, 45, 61, 62. 
Lakes— Great, 33, 46, 58, 67, 80, 
82, 86, 98, 176. 

Huron, 131. 

Superior, 98, 131, 152, 174. 

Winnebago, 211. 

Winnepec, 204. 

"The Lakes," 46, 204. 
Land Ownership, 20, 28, 30, 32-34, 

51, 60, 61, 109-112, 114, 116, 

124. 127, 128, 129, 135. 
La Pointe (Wis.), 130. 
Latimer, Hugh, 86. 
Latin Empire of East, 71. 
Leagues East of Rockies, 80. 

See also Lenape; Nadoweisiw; 
Iroquois; Talaga; Coweta; 
Lenape (First Men), 15, 33, 35, 

39, 40, 43, 45, 48, 80, 100, 106, 

114, 119, 120, 131, 149, 158, 164, 

184, 205, 222. 
Lief Erickson, 63. 
Liberty Boys, 142 et seq. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 111. 
Little Basswood Island (Wis.), 

Little Old Men (Wise ones), 122, 

Little Turtle (Chief), 109. 
Location of Indians Today, 222 

et seq. 
Lombardy, 51. 
Long, Jno. L., 212. 
Longfellow, 40, 149. 
Longhouse, 40, 77, 88, 144. 
Louis IX, 71. 
Louis XI, 83. 
Louisiana, 206. 
Lynx (Eries), 183. 


Mabila (Mauville or Mobile), 81, 

McBeth, 64. 
Mackenzie, Alex., 58, 107, 130, 

Mackinaw, 130. 
Mackinack Island, 130. 
Madoc, Prince of Wales, 206. 
Madawisin (la.), 170. 
Madiera Islands, 73. 
Magicians, 44. 
Maistchusaeg (Massachusetts), 

Maine, 74, 95, 215. 
Makimani (See Manimaki, Bad 

Manito), 42, 79, 121, 155, 157. 



Makwa manito (Bear Manito), 

Makubimish, 130. 
Mamelukes, 71. 
Man Manito (See Dzhemanito), 

Man Beings, 42. 
Mandans (tribe), 225. 
Manhattan, 95. 
Manhood Suffrage, 146. 
Manimaki (Bad Spirit), 43. 
Manito (Spirit. Same as Inua, 

Katcina, Oki, Orenda, Wakon- 

da, which see), 27, 115, 121. 
Manitos (Creators, Guardian 

Spirits), 42, 131. 
Manitoulin Island, 48, 119. 
Mankhe, 122. 
Margaret of Norway, 73. 
Markham, Lt, of Penn., 28. 
Markland, 60. 
Martin Luther, 86. 
Mary, The Catholic, 86. 
Mary of Scotland, 86. 
Maryland, 70, 96, 141, 145, 213, 

Mascoutens (Muscodesh), 48. 
Mashkisibi (river), 130. 
Maskanako (Big Snake), 45, 156, 

157, 159. 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 87. 
Massachusetts, 96, 155, 198, 228. 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 97. 
Master of Life, 119, 124. 
Mayas, 49, 60, 61. 
Mayapan, 77. 
Medici, 86. 
Medicine Bag, 121. 
Medicine Men (Mide). See 

Priest House. 
Meigis Shell Rite, 129, 231. 
Menalting (Grand Council), 164, 

172, 187. 
Mengwae (Mingoes), 74, 78, 88, 

183, 187, 203, 205, 212, 224. 
Menomini (tribe), 224. 
Mexico, 49, 53, 62, 64, 81, 86, 

207, 209, 224. 
Miami League, 108, 110, 223. 

Michigan, 48, 100, 129, 131, 215, 

223, 228. 
Michikiniqua (chief), 108. 
Mide (member of Midewiwan), 

133, 180, 171, 236. 
Midewiwan (Priest House), 44, 

48, 118, 130, 230, 233, 234. 
Midewigan (Temple), 132. 
Migrations, 170, 178, 181, 207, 213. 
Minavavana (Chief), 124. 
Mingoes (Mengwae or Iroquois), 

102, 183. 
Minisabikkang, 130. 
Minisawik, 130. 
Minisinoshkwe (Nanaboush 

Upper Home), 132. 
Minsi (Minisimini or Wolves), 

183, 187, 222. 
Minihaking (Corn Land), 168. 
Minisipi (Churchill River), 47. 
Minneapolis, 54, 222. 
Minnesota, 131, 197, 215, 228. 
Mishenama-Kinagung, 130. 
Mississippi, 213, 215, 228. 
Mississippi Valley, 56, 58, 60. 
Mississippi River, 50, 59, 62, 64, 

66, 71, 78, 81, 86, 113, 141, 182, 

199, 201, 204, 211, 222. 
Missouri, 53, 68, 209, 228. 
Missouri River, 50, 55, 69, 78, 80, 

114, 212. 
Missouri tribes, 212, 225. 
Miquon (See Onas), 26, 198. 
Mnemomic Records, 151. 
Mohamed, 49. 
Mohawks (tribe), 95, 210. 
Mohawk River, 80. 
Mohegans (Wolves), 73, 183. 
Mongols, 71. 
Moningwunkauning, 130. 
Monster, 156. 
Monsters, 45. 
Montana, 216, 228. 
Montgomery, Gen., 146. 
Mooney, William, 144, 145. 
Montreal, 198. 
Moore, Sir Thomas, 86. 
Moors, 83. 

Morgan (Col. Geo.), 21, 22, 198. 
Moravians, 21. 
Morton, Dr., 49. 



Mound, fortified, 49. 
Moundbuilders, 66, 68, 69, 177, 

202, 203, 218. 
Mound Rites, 203, 210. 
Munsi (Minsi), 222. 
Muscodesh (See Fire People; 
Mascoutens, Fox, Sauk), 48, 100, 

Mushkisiwi, 130. 
Muskingum River, 21, 99. 
Muskoki (See Coweta), 36, 60, 81, 

86, 99, 108, 184, 211, 213, 224. 
Muskwakiwak, 222. 

Nadowe-is-iw (Dakotas), 80, 114, 

Nahuas, 49, 64. 
Naka Powa (Snake Priest), 46, 

47, 48, 161. 
Nakomis (earth), 103. 
Namaesipu (Nemisipi or Fish 

River), 65, 202. 
Nanaboush, 19, 44, 45, 121, 132, 

156-159, 230. 
Nana-Ishtohoolo, 120. 
Nantines (fairies), 43. 
Nanticokes (tribe), 70, 71, 73, 

179, 224. 
Narragansetts (tribe), 135. 
Natchez (tribe), 60, 81, 139, 211, 

National Boundaries, 20. 
Naumbeg (Salem), 141. 
Neashiwikongk, 130. 
Nebraska, 217, 229. 
Nectam (See Nakohatami), 48, 

152, 170, 200. 
Negawadzheu, 130. 
Negro Slaves, 95. 
Nekohatami (Title), 58, 152, 170, 

Nemakan. See Fish River. 
Netawatwes (Chief), 15,24. 
Netawayasink, 130. 
Nevada, 217, 229. 
New Amsterdam, 97. 

New England, 93, 97, 98, 135, 138 

New Foundland, 91. 

New Hampshire, 145, 128. 

New Haven, 133. 

New Jersey, 73, 87, 89, 93, 185, 228. 

New Mexico, 216, 228. 

New York, 74, 80, 99, 113, 145, 

217, 228. 
N. Y. Historical Society, 155. 
Newisakkudezibi, 131. 
Niagara Falls, 86, 186. 
Nika (Brother), 124, 232, 233. 
Nika Xube (Men of Long Ago), 

122, 232. 

See also Xobe Path. 
Niniba Weawan (Calumet), 136. 
Niwigwassikongk, 131. 
Norsemen, 53, 62. 
North Carolina, 100, 145, 217, 228. 
North Dakota, 217, 228. 
Northerners (Enemy), 172, 179, 

Norway, 73. 


Ofo (tribe), 48, 266. 

Ohio, 228. 

Ohio Valley, 17, 36, 37, 69, 72, 73, 

80, 88, 95, 97, 100, 102, 177, 204, 

206, 207, 212, 224. 
Ohio River, 127. 
Ojibwav (Chippewa), 63, 129, 

Oklahoma, 217, 228. 
Oki (Wendat Manito), 120. 
Omaha, 66, 203, 209, 225. 
Onas (feather), 26, 31, 32, 34, 36, 

Oneidas (tribe), 36. 
Onandagas (tribe), 125. 
Opunnarke (Delawares), 222. 
Open Hand, 139. 
Opekasit (king), 63, 64, 131, 201. 

See Kings. 
Orapakes (Va.), 131. 
Oregon, 218, 228. 
Orenda (Iroquois Manito), 27, 

Osages (Wacace), 122, 209, 225. 
Osakiwug, 211. 
Osceola (Chief), 112. 
Otali (Cherokee), 184, 188, 211, 




Otter Island (Manitoulin or 

Ottawa), 129. 
Ottawa, 97, 100, 106, 172, 22+, 230. 
Ottawa River, 46, 63, 129. 
Otter Rite, 129, 230, 234. 
Oto (tribe), 209, 225. 
Outagamies, 222. 
Oxford University, 72. 

Pacific Coast, 78. 

Painted Sticks (Walam Olum), 

148, 167. 
Panther Manito, 132. 
Paris, 52. 
Peace (Tamanend Ideal), 25, 26, 

58, 114. 
Peace King, 124, 125, 139, 140, 

Peace Leaders (See Nakapowa; 

Tamanend), 50, 51. 
Peace Pipe (See Calumet; Pipe 

Bearer), 115, 136, 210. 
Peace Festivals, 62. 
Peace Tree, 32, 34. 
Peace of Augsburg, 86. 
Penn, William, 11, 15, 25-30, 33- 

40, 45, 109, 114, 125, 142, 143, 

198, 199. 
Pennsbury, 35, 39. 
Pennsylvania, 68, 69, 73, 81, 100, 

145, 183, 228. 
Pepin, 49. 

Pequods (tribe), 135. 
Persia, 49. 
Peru, 78. 

Philadelphia, 30, 31, 98, 109, 141. 
Piegans (tribe), 232. 
Pike, Gen. Albert, 112. 
Pilgrim Fathers, 30, 95, 96, 133. 
Pipe Bearer (Ambassador), 59, 

61, 69, 70, 137, 165, 171. 
Pipe of Peace, 125, 136, 210. 

(See Calumet). 
Pirates, 35. 
Pittsburg, 24. 
Plantagenets, 67, 72. 
Plymouth, 97. 

Pohegans (Delawares), 222. 
Pokhapokhapek (Great Lakes), 

(Sault St. Marie), 162. 
Pokanoket (Salem, Mass.), 141. 
Poles, 71. 

Pontiac (king), 103, 204. 
Ponca (tribe), 209. 
Population, Indian, 228. 
Postal Service, 31. 
Potomacs (tribes), 39, 104. 
Potawatomies (tribe), 100, 108, 

Popes, 52, 54. 
Powau, 135. 
Powako (Priest Snake, enemy), 

Powhattan, 93, 131, 133. 
Powow Dance, 121. 
Prairie Du Chien, 200. 
Prayer Sticks, 136. 
Praying Indians, 133, 134. 
Priests House, (See Midewiwan), 

3, 26, 118. 
Prophets (Seers), 139. 
Protestants, 86, 87. 
Providence, R. I., 96. 
Pueblos, 53. 
Puritans, 132. 

Quakers, 26, 35. 
Quapaw, 203, 209, 225. 
Queen Anne's W,ar, 99. 
Quichas, 62. 

Rafinesque, Dr. Constantine, 148, 

Rainey River, Canada, 46, 65, 200, 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 93. 
Red Cliff, (Wis.), 130. 
Red Score (Walam Olum), 43, 

148, 189^ 

Metrical Version (English), 

Book I (Genesis), 154. 

Book II (Flood), 156. 

Book III (Tula; The Crossing), 

Book IV (Wars with Dakotas 
and Moundbuilders), 164. 

Book V (To the Atlantic), 177. 



Red Indians (Algonkin races), 

69, 206. 
Red Jacket (chief), 125, 126, 128, 

Redpath (historian), 118, 134. 
Red Cloud (chief), 113. 
Religion (See Tamanend ; Mide- 
wiwan), 25, 26, 56, 117, 128, 
140, 141, 217, 232. 
Religious Intolerance of Colonies, 

30, 134. 
Renaissance (European^ 71, 77. 
Rhode Island, 96, 97, 141, 145 

Richard Couer d'Lion, 70. 
Ridley, Nicholas, 86. 
Rienzi, 72. 

Robert Bruce, 71, 72. 
Rocky Mountains, 47, 79, 232. 
Roger Bacon, 71. 
Roger Williams (see Williams), 

96, 97, 134, 206. 
Roman Empire, 52, 64, 72. 
Roman Nose (Chief), 113. 
Rudolph of Germany, 72. 
Russia, 52, 62, 71. 
Rurick, 52. 

Saapakweshkwaokongk, 131. 

Sacred Pipestone Quarry 

(Minn.), 136. 

Sachem, 145. 

Sagamore, 145. 

Sagonyutha (Chief), 77. 

Sakim (King, a Title), 58. 

Sakimaxon, 32, 199. 

Saladin, 69, 70. 

Salamanca University, 73. 

Sand Island, Ky., 211. 

Sand Mountain, 130. 

Salem, Mass, 41. 

Salt, 53, 168. 

Saponi (tribe), 206. 

Sault St. Marie, 48, 130. 

Savonarola, 84. 

St. Andrew's Society, 18. 

St. Bartholomew Massacre, 87. 

St. David's Society, 19. 

St. Francis of Assisi, 70. 

St. George's Society, 19. 

St. John's River, 86. 

St. Lawrence River, 44, 45, 81, 

129, 217. 
St. Louis, 71. 
St. Louis River, 130. 
St. Mary's, Maryland, 96, 141. 
St. Paul, Minn., 54, 222. 
St. Tammany Society, 19, 40, 142. 
St. Tammany, 19, 40, 142-145. 
Saracenes, 52, 67. 
Sassoonan, 39. 
Sauks (Sac tribe), 48, 108, 111, 

112, 223. 
Savannah River, 80, 81. 
Saxons, 51. 
Scioto River (Ohio), 37, 70, 88, 

100, 188, 211, 223. 
Scotch, 56. 
Scotland, 72. 
Sea Monsters, 157, 158. 
Seminoles (tribe), 116, 224. 
Senecas (tribe), 77, 214. 
Servetus, Michael, 86. 
Shagawmokongk (Shagomigo), 

Shageskihedawanga, 130. 
Shakamaxon (Pa.), 32, 199. 
Shayabing (Jersey "Shore"), 35, 

Shawnees (tribe), 36, 70, 71, 73, 
86, 88, 100, 101, 104, 106, 108, 
176, 179, 185, 188, 223. 
Shinaking (Mich.), 163 et seq. 
Shooting Spirit Power, 121. 
Silisians, 71. 

Siksika Confederacy, 200, 222. 
Sioux, 36, 43, 47, 51, 52, 54, 55, 60, 
62, 63, 68, 72, 78, 80, 81, 111, 
114, 115, 119, 120, 121, 123, 177, 
199, 201, 206, 207, 211, 223, 225, 
232, 233, 234. 
Sitting Bull (chief), 114. 
Six Nations, 99. 
Smith, Capt. John, 93, 130, 131, 

140, 150. 
Snake (an enemy), 48. 
Snake (sacred). See Great Snake: 

Black Snake. 
Snake Island, 47, 161, 152, 164. 
Snake Land, 48, 60, 166. 
Snake Mound, 164, 165. 



Sons of Liberty, 143. 

South Carolina, 228. 

South Dakotah, 218, 228. 

Spanish, 86, 91, 208, 209, 210. 

Spanish Armada, 88. 

Spain, 49, 54, 73, 83. 

Squeer's Translation, 149. 

Star Chamber, 30. 

Stone Men (Assiniboines), 47, 62, 

166, 172, 179, 180. 
Sun Salt Sea, 73. 
Superior (Lake), 48. 
Susquehannas, 35, 36, 39. 
Susquehanna River, 10, 35, 72, 73, 

74, 181, 182. 
Susquehannocks, 74. 
Sutton Benj. J., 201. 
Swedes, 30, 31, 97. 
Sweden, 73. 
Switzerland, 86. 
Syria, 49. 


Talaga (Cherokees), 36, 67, 68, 
69, 72, 77, 81, 86, 100, 173, 174, 
175, 178-180, 197, 203, 206. 

Talega Mountains, 181, 188. 

Talega River (Ohio), 180. 

Talega War, 36, 66, 177 et seq., 

Talligewi, 173, 177, 205. 

Talamatans (See Hurons; Wen- 
dats), 46, 65, 66, 69, 74, 86, 
108, 174-177, 185, 186, 205. 

Tallysticks, 145. 

Tamanend (white). See Morgan. 

Tamanend I, 11, 50, 55, 57, 58, 59, 
60, 61, 64, 142, 170, 194, 212. 

Tamanend II, 11, 78-83, 86, 182, 

Tamanend III, 11, 15, 25-41, 109, 

141, 142, 143, 198, 199. 
Tamanend Ideal, 30, 40, 63, 66, 

79, 83^ 84, 91, 99, 104-107, 124, 

142, 147. 

Tammany Society, 40, 144. 

Tapakweikak, 131. 

Tawas (tribes), 63, 65, 86, 180, 

181, 182, 186, 223. 
Tecumseh (king), 110, 126, 204, 


Temples (Midewigans), 139, 230, 

Tennessee, 36, 81, 205, 206, 228, 

Texas, 78, 228. 
Thatcher, Indian Biographer, 124, 

Thompson, Gen., 111. 
Thorfin Karlsefne, 62. 
Three Fires, 62, 100, 223. 
Thunder Birds, 18. 
Timourlane, 72. 
Tolan, 62. 
Toltecs, 49, 62. 
Tonga-Wakon (Giver of Life; 

Sun), 122, 138, 232. 
Treachery, 112, 118, 135. 
Treaties — Great Miami, 106. 
Ft. Harmer, 107. 
Holston, 107. 
Hopewell, 106. 
Ft. Johnson, 31, 103. 
Ft. Mcintosh, 106. 
Ft. Stanwix, 103, 106. 
Philadelphia, 107. 
Penn, Win, 33. 
Transvlvania University, 148. 
Trenton, N. J., 35. 
Tsalike, 68, 205, 224. 
Tree — See Peace. 
Tshiwitowi, 130. 
Tula (Turtle Island), 45, 157, 

158, 159, 160 et seq. 
Tula (Mexico), 49. 
Turks, 77, 87. 
Tuscaroras, 125. 
Tupak Yupanik, 77. 
Turtles Back, 45, 158. 

(The Earth). 
Turtle Country, 154, 155. 
Turtle (Tribe), 22, 25, 46, 63, 98, 

161, 163, 179, 185, 187. 
Turtle River, 200. 
Tuscaroras (tribe), 101, 125. 
Twighttwees, 127. 

Unamini (Unami), the Turtle 

Tribe, 210, 211. 
Uncas (chief), 96, 98. 



United Colonies of New Eng- 
land, 96. 

Universal Mysteries (See Mide- 
wiwan ; Wakon-Kitchewa), 


Upper Ohio Valley (Talaga- 
land). See Ohio Valley. 

Utah, 218, 228. 

Utagaming (Fox or Outagamies), 


Venice, 72. 

Verizano, 91, 150. 

Vermont, 228. 

Vinland, 60. 

Virginia, 81, 93, 95, 98, 131, 
142, 1+5, 203, 228. 

Vladimir, 62. 

Voltaire, 33. 

Wabash River, 89. 
Wabanaki (Abnaki), 73, 183. 
Wacace (Osages), 135. 
Wakonda (Sioux Manito), 27, 

120, 121, 122. 
Wakon Kitchewa (Priest House), 

44, 120', 122, 231, 232. 
Wakon Powako (Holy Priest 

Snake), 43, 44, 155. 
Wakon Tebe (Holy House. See 

Cave Place), a cemetery, 54, 

Wampum, 34, 77, 95, 138 et seq., 

182, 207, 208, 234. 
Wallabout Bay, 146. 
Walam Olum. 

Delaware Text, 189. 
A — 192. 

Metrical English Version, 154. 
Wapahoning (Ohio), 72, 179. 
Wappengers, 97. 
War (Indian View), 128. 
War, Red vs. White Indians, 69, 

War of 1812, 146. 
War of Roses, 77, 79, 82. 

War, Great Snake, 16, 43, 49, 50, 

War — See Civil; Talega; French- 
Ward, Dr. Alexander, 148, 206. 
Washington, George, 143, 145, 

Water Roads, 78. 
Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 108, 109, 

127, 212. 
Weber (James, Delaware Chief), 

Wecacoae (Philadelphia), 30. 
Weheequickhon, 39. 
Weewhinhough (Chief), 37. 
Wendats (Wyandottes, Hurons, 

Talamatans), 46, 66, 74, 81, 92, 

99, 120, 211. 
Welsh Indians, 206, 217. 
West, Going, 231. 
West Virginia, 86, 228. 
Western Division, 66, 69, 71, 78, 

80, 86, 98, 99, 108, 131, 199. 
White Indians, 69, 206. 
White Eyes, Capt., 15, 23, 105, 

White Eyes, George, 22, 23. 
White Salt Lick (Ohio) 72, 179. 
White's Coming (to America), 

91, 184, 189. 
White River (Indiana), 70, 126, 

Wigwam, 40, 144. 
Wikewedwongga, 130. 
Wikupbimish, 130. 
William the Conqueror, 64. 
William the Lion, 69. 
Williams, Roger, 96, 97, 134, 135. 
Winikaking (Pennsylvania), 182. 
Winnebagoes (tribe), 68, 80, 110, 

111, 209, 225. 
Winnepeg Lake, 46, 209. 
Wisawana (Great Meadow, la.), 

55, 57, 170, 200. 
Wiskinskie, 145. 
Witches, 233. 
Witchcraft, 31, 132, 233. 
Wisconsin, 130, 218, 228. 
Wolf (tribe). (See Minsi, Mohe- 

cans), 22, 46, 161, 162, 163, 183, 




Wopatha (Chief), 36. 
Wyandottes (Wendats), 65, 99, 

106, 108, 226. 
Wyoming, 218, 228. 

Xobe Path (The Milky Way), 
232. (See Nika Xube). 

Yanokies (Iroquois for New Eng- 
enders), 19, 198. 

Yellow River. (See Wisawana), 
13, 55, 56, 58, 170, 200, 211. 

York, Duke of, 27. 

Yucatan, 62. 

Yu Ho Canal, 73. 


SPIESS, Mathias 

The Story of Wimneeneetunah 

83 Pages Illustrated Binding, Cloth Price $1.00 

To many millions of Americans, young and old, the word "Indian" 
brings forth a vivid mental picture of a ruthless savage, ever readj 
to scalp, plunder and raid. 

This impression prevails because all that is written about the In- 
dian, was written by his enemy, the white man. Because of lack of 
a written language, the Red Man could not convey to posterity his 
story of the conflict which developed between the two races for the 
possession of the land. 

In the words of the author: "All that the Indian did to the white 
man is recorded but much of what the Whites did in return, is for- 
gotten. When the settlers won in battle in their attempts to extermi- 
nate the natives, it was heralded as a glorious victory. But, when 
the Indians killed white men in defense of homes, family and coun- 
try, all this was recorded as a massacre." 

The author's own summary of why most historical accounts incom- 
pletely depict the Indian as an unfriendly, brutal savage, is of 

"After many years of research and study, I concluded that the 
Indian as pictured in history is a portrayal of him as he was AFTER 
he had tasted the white man's fire water and had forfeited freedom, 
land and hunting grounds. That portrayal pictures the Indian after 
he had realized his losses and hated the white foreigners." 

This book by Mr. Spiess has a double purpose: 

First: to entertain with an absorbing tale of true love between a 
ship's cabin boy, and an entrancing Indian princess. Their romance 
has become a famous tradition, ante-dating even the classic of "The 
Courtship of Miles Standish" and being fully as eventful. 

Second: to right a great wrong, which might well be termed "the 
Great American Injustice." In the words of the author: "Since the 
Indians left no records, this book was written as an appeal to modern 
civilization to call a halt in further misrepresentation of a race 
without whose friendship and hospitality to the white settlers, the 
history of New England would never have become what it is." 


SCOTT, Colonel R. G. 
Indian Romances 

141 Pages Binding, Cloth Price $1.50 

We think of Indians as a race 
Cruel, treacherous, deceitful, base. 
Par below the paleface race today, 
In tribal strife in war in every way. 
It's true they fought as all men fight 
For what to them they deemed as right. 
Can we condemn those tribal men 
For thus defending tepee homes, when 
"White men, for lesser cause, fight and slay 
Millions of their fine young men in our day? 

Years, even centuries, have slipped into the eternity of time since 
the progenitors of the Indian race set foot upon the earth. From 
whence they found their way upon the American continent is specu- 

It is believed by some that the South American Indian is of African 
descent. There is speculation as to whether the North American 
Indian is an offshoot of the South American or whether they found 
their way here over Bering Straits. So far as the incidents herein 
are related it makes but little difference as to origin. The indi- 
vidual life, the romance and tragedy of peoples is far more interest- 
ing than is that of their origin. Especially is this true of a people 
who had cut no larger figure in world affairs than has the American 
Indian. It is the romantic legend and individual life experience of 
many of the Indian race — male and female — who played an interest- 
ing part in human affairs that is to give interest to the reader. Since 
there are more than a thousand dialects in the Indian language, prob- 
ably not one reader in a thousand is acquainted with even one of 
them. The narrative is told in English. This makes it interesting 
to all. 

Colonel R. G. Scott was born in the territory of Iowa eighty-eight 
years ago and had for a neighbor and playmate William F. Cody 
(Buffalo Bill). Antonio LeCIaire, interpreter for the Government in 
the Black Hawk War was his father's friend. LeClaire's mother was 
an Indian; his father, French. To LeClaire's many stories of early 
Indian life, Colonel Scott acknowledges his indebtedness; also for 
stories of Captain Abraham Lincoln in the same Black Hawk War. 

"The author shows the honor of the red man, the loyalty and 
virtue of the Indian maiden, making a misunderstood people stand 
out in a new and true light. These hitherto unpublished experiences 
In Indian life will add to racial understanding." — Christian Advocate. 


WEAR, George W. 

Pioneer Days and Kebo Club Nights 

156 Pages Binding, Cloth Price $2.00 

To anyone surfeited with modern, sophisticated fiction, PIONEER 
DAYS AND KEBO CLUB NIGHTS offer a pleasing diversion. The 
volume is a series of tales of Bakersfield, California, and other 
extraordinary incidents, reminiscent of the days when the West was 
young and "a man for breakfast" marked the usual beginning of "a 
perfect day." 

The author has lived in the West for sixty years and has rubbed 
elbows with characters who were equally as rough and ready as the 
fictionally famous "One-eyed Mike" and "Three-fingered Pete." From 
this long and ripe experience has been garnered a thrilling grist of 
human-interest anecdotes concerning the West's most colorful figures. 

Vividly, and in a style both crisp and breezy, he describes some 
of the gun battles of half a century ago, and many hair-raising con- 
tacts with the roving, uncivilized Indian. 

In a summary of little-known characteristics of the red man he 
relates an experience with one who was starving. "He was emaci- 
ated, parched of skin and apparently about seventy. After he had 
consumed the entire carcass of a deer, he was metamorphosed into 
a husky young brave of twenty-three. To determine the age of an 
Indian you must know when he has last eaten." 

In the "minutes" of the strictly informal Kebo Club, that met 
nightly and barred no one sociable enough to walk up, take a seat in 
the crowd and tell a story, are recounted many strange episodes. They 
cover a wide range; the whimsical, the humorous, the ironic and the 

Bakersfield, California, of fifty years ago was typically "wild and 
woolly." "When I arrived," writes the author, "a friend told me it 
was a sickly place and that a fly could not live there. He was mis- 
taken! I found millions of 'em; all with large families. Today, 
there isn't a more healthy or more equitable climate in the United 

The author is a veteran newspaper man and writer of books. 

"There are pleasing: contrasts in the stories presented, pathos and 
humor alternating, and any one who lived in Bakersfield between the 
late '70a and the beginning: of the new century will find genuine 
pleasure in what the village editor of that time now presents." 

— Bakersfield Californian. 


STUBBINS, Thomas Alva 
The Story of the Tomb of Gold 

93 Pages Binding, Cloth Price 75 cents 

THE STORY OF THE TOMB OF GOLD is hard to classify. It 
cannot all be fancy, for there must have been some facts upon which 
it is built. 

The narrative opens with two men sitting before a grate fire. They 
are old friends renewing their friendship after some years of separa- 
tion. Harry, the visitor, tells the tale to his companion. 

He begins his account by going back to the last decade of the 
eighteenth century. A band of pioneers are headed into the wilder- 
ness, coming from the Atlantic coast. They make their final stop 
on the banks of the beautiful Susquehanna River. 

The settlement is made and the efficient dreamer in their midst 
gives them a motto and in this motto there is the incentive that leads 
them forward into great prosperity. It brought peace between them 
and the Indians. Sidney, the name they gave their settlement — yes, 
Sidney is still on the map and its citizens may think entirely too 
much so when they read this story — grew into a thriving little city. 
The efficient dreamer died and the "Sidneys" fell from their lofty 
estate into the very depths. 

Time passes. The Civil War with its revealing results as to the 
gradual slipping of "Sidneys" is told. Time passes. The World 
War comes and goes, and then an alchemist, in his ionely apart- 
ment, in New York City, discovers the secret sought for through the 
ages, how to transmute baser material into "the lure of the ages" — 
Gold. After months of search this alchemist finds helpers, for he 
must have helpers to put through his plans, in these "Sidneys." 

The brilliant Secretary of the Department of Social Relations of 
the Congregational Churches, Helen G. Murray, says of THE 

"I was very much Impressed with it. It deals with those impossible 
things which a writer like yourself makes highly probable. I don't 
know how you do it — it is because you are dealing with basic truth, 
of course, that you are able to subordinate incident to something 
greater. Perhaps subordinate Is not the word I should use. Sublima- 
tion is probably more nearly what you have accomplished."